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Back in Beirut, be sure to leave time to explore its diverse districts (this time leaving the car firmly in the hotel car park). Stroll through Downtown, which was extensively reconstructed following Lebanon's long, painful civil war, mingle with American University students over a nargileh (water- pipe), watch the world go by at sunset on the seafront Corniche, and take your pick of cool dining destinations on Gemmayzeh's Rue Gouraud.
 


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What specifically would I need to get and understand to use this method? So far I was thinking I can use one button to increment decrement by pushing it or holding it.
 


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A statement confirmed an attack happened early Monday morning at the Special Anti- Robbery Squad station near Abuja. Federal police spokesman Frank Mba said the gunmen's assault allowed some 30 prisoners to escape. Mba said 25 had already been recaptured.
 


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Attempt missed. James Tomkins (West Ham United) left footed shot from the left side of the box is too high. Assisted by Andy Carroll with a headed pass.
 


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Voidspace Python Guestbook Page             UGG stikkontakt online
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STORY WRITTEN FOR    & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: June 12, 2004       Cassini snaps a full view of Saturn and rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger version Cassini's 12 scientific instruments fall into two broad categories: Remote sensing and fields and particles.Remote Sensing InstrumentsImaging Science Subsystem (wide- and narrow-angle cameras)Visible and Infrared Mapping SpectrometerComposite Infrared SpectrometerUltraviolet Imaging SpectrographCassini RadarRadio ScienceFields and ParticlesCassini Plasma SpectrometerIon and Neutral Mass SpectrometerCosmic Dust AnalyzerDual Technique MagnetometerMagnetospheric Imaging Mass SpectrometerRadio and Plasma Wave Science InstrumentUnlike the Voyager probes and the Galileo mission to Jupiter, Cassini's four optical remote sensing instruments are not mounted on an independently targetable scan platform. To observe a target, the entire spacecraft has to be re-oriented so the co- aligned optical instruments are properly aimed. Particles and fields instruments are mostly "scattered around the spacecraft," said Julie Webster, lead spacecraft engineer. "What they want to do is, they want to sweep out mostly 360-degree coverage. So they don't point, they roll." And that requires the entire spacecraft to roll.    It all makes for an enormously complicated ballet.    "On Galileo, you pointed the antenna to Earth and you just left it there," said program manager Bob Mitchell. "You had a scan platform, you had a spinning section for the fields and particles instruments, the radio science guys were always happy because the antenna was pointed to Earth and you just left it in that configuration and you let it fly and you collected data all the time.    "For us, you've got four optical remote sensing instruments that want to point, if you're lucky, in the same direction. You've got six fields and particles instruments that generally want to point someplace different. ... You've got radar that wants to point off perpendicular to where the ORS (remote sensing) guys want to look. You've got an aeronomy instrument that wants to point someplace different yet and so you've got this constant tension among the different investigations about where they're going to point this thing."       The science objectives for Cassini-Huygens includes Saturn and its rings, Titan and the other moons and the planet's magnetosphere. Credit: NASA/JPLOn a typical day, Cassini will spend 16 hours or so collecting data, spending part of the time in an orientation that favors optical or radar studies and part of the time doing fields and particles work. During data collection, the high-gain antenna will be pointed away from Earth and Cassini will be operating on its own.    "They'll do 15 minutes of imaging of this and 15 minutes of that and maybe two hours for (a movie of Saturn's atmosphere)," Webster said. "Then, we'll go off in different places and maybe they'll do a little mosaic. Of course, the interesting ones where everybody wants to be in the act are right around the icy satellite flybys and the Titans, and they've done a lot of horse trading over the years.    "So they kind of work out times so that radar can take a little bit and maybe radio science, which has to point back to Earth can take a little bit and the ORS instruments can turn and take their pictures. It's a highly choreographed scenario that they work out on a daily basis. George Balanchine doesn't have anything on us!"    Engineering and science data will be stored on two 2.2-gigabyte digital recorders that also hold backup copies of flight software for use as needed. After completing the day's science observations, Cassini will re-orient itself, aim its high-gain antenna toward Earth and spend eight hours or more transmitting stored data to NASA's Deep Space Network antennas in Australia, Spain and California. When the largest dishes are used, data rates of up to 165,900 bits per second are possible, allowing scientists to receive up to four gigabytes of data per day.    "I've been with this thing since it was a hunk of aluminum," Webster said in an interview. "Sometimes I take out pictures of the cabling and just marvel at the way this thing was cabled and put together. It's been a joy to fly and it was a joy to build."    The remote sensing instruments will provide the spectacular pictures that will most appeal to the public. The cameras and spectrometers "will be addressing questions like what does the surface of Titan look like underneath its veil of haze? Are there craters there? Are there lakes?" project scientist Dennis Matson said before launch. "When we come close to the rings of Saturn and the surfaces of icy satellites and look at them at high resolution, what are they really going to look like? What are they composed of? What is the composition of Saturn's atmosphere? How does that composition change from one place to another across Saturn? How does it change with time?"       Credit: ESAThe fields and particles instruments "consist of particle spectrometers of various types, magnetometers, radio instruments and the magnetospheric imaging instrument," Matson said. "Things this suite of instruments will address are things related to the nature of the plasma that surrounds Saturn, the nature of the magnetosphere, the characteristics of dust in the system."    The magnetosphere of the planet "is a gigantic magnetic bubble that surrounds Saturn," he said. "It's very complicated, it has structure to it, there are many different neighborhoods in the magnetosphere where special processes happen. We will be visiting those places, measuring what's going on there, and for some of them we'll actually be able to take pictures of the processes as they occur.    "Saturn also has a big magnetic puzzle. It's magnetic field is almost exactly aligned with its rotation axis. Our theory of magnetic dynamos says this is something that can't occur. So in the course of Cassini's measurement of the magnetic field around Saturn, we'll be addressing some fundamental questions about the nature of its magnetic field and how it arises and we'll learn some lessons. I think those lessons will turn out to be useful in terms of understanding the magnetic field here at the Earth, a place where we still do not understand why the magnetic field flips from time to time."    Cassini's camera systems, of course, will provide the most spectacular results for the lay person. Several hundred thousand images are expected to be beamed back to Earth with a maximum resolution of two kilometers per pixel when looking at Saturn's rings, twice as good as images from the Voyager spacecraft. "Dynamically speaking, the ring system of Saturn shares a lot of common traits with systems as large as the spiral galaxies, which are trillions of times bigger," Porco said at a pre-launch news conference. "So in addressing questions about ring systems we are actually asking questions that are truly universal in nature."       This picture of Saturn's rings was taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in November 1980. Credit: NASA/JPLDespite the success of the Voyager encounters, "we are still left seeking an answer to probably the most fundamental question about Saturn's rings," she continued. "And that is, how did they get there and how long will they stick around? A system of rings like Saturn's is really a collection of many, many separately orbiting particles that are always in motion and constantly changing. And for reasons we don't really understand, they collect themselves into an enormous variety of features and structures.    "Some of those features we think we do understand. They seem to be dynamically related to the satellites of Saturn, both satellites embedded within the rings and those external to the rings. And if our theories are correct, the dynamical interactions between the satellites and the rings should lead to discernible changes in the orbits of both ring particles and the satellites.    "So a primary objective of the imaging system is going to be to refine the orbits of those satellites and actually search for the changes that have occurred between the Voyager epoch and Cassini's arrival there. And with that, we should have a direct measurement of the rate at which the rings are evolving and extrapolating from that, a much better estimate for how long the rings have been around and even, perhaps, a prediction for how long they will stick around in the future."    Scientists believe the rings formed several hundred million years ago when one or more small moons broke apart in the grip of Saturn's gravity. Another camp believes a stray Kuiper Belt Object wandered too close and was ripped to shreds. Mathematical analyses show the debris from such a wreck would quickly spread out in a vast, thin disk. Subsequent collisions and impacts ground the fragments into smaller and smaller pieces, giving birth to the rings first glimpsed by Galileo in the early 1600s. The Cassini spacecraft was named after the French astronomer Jean-Dominque Cassini, who discovered several of Saturn's moons and the broad gap in its rings that is a famous target for amateur astronomers. The European Titan probe was named after Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch scientist who discovered the cloud-shrouded moon in 1655 and who developed the first accurate theory explaining the structure of Saturn's rings.       An artist's concept shows Huygens parachuting to Titan after deployment from the Cassini orbiter. Credit: EADS AstriumThroughout its four-year orbital tour, Cassini will train its instruments on Titan to supplement what the Huygens probe discovers during its descent. "What makes it most interesting is the presence of methane, which makes up a few percent of the atmospheric composition," said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, European Space Agency project scientist. "Sun rays, cosmic rays and certain energetic particles break the methane and the nitrogen, which leads to a complex photochemistry which produces complex organic molecules. When going to Titan, we are looking for answers to many questions. One is what complex organic molecules nature makes from these two simple gases, nitrogen and methane? And how complex are molecules today on Titan."    The Huygens/Titan probe is equipped with six science instruments:Descent Imager/Spectral RadiometerHuygens Atmospheric Structure InstrumentAerosol Collector and PyrolyzerGas Chromatograph/Mass SpectrometerDoppler Wind ExperimentSurface Science PackageHuygens will be released from Cassini on Christmas Eve. Spinning at 7 rpm for stability, the probe will slam into the atmosphere Jan. 14 at a speed of some 12,400 mph. When the velocity has dropped to about 870 mph, Huygens' aft cover will be pulled away by a pilot chute and the spacecraft's 27 -foot-wide main parachute will deploy. The chute will be jettisoned 15 minutes after entry begins and from that point on, Huygens will ride beneath a smaller 9.8-foot-wide parachute. Impact on the surface at some 11 mph is expected about two-and-a-half hours after entry begins.    Assuming the 705-pound Huygens doesn't splash down in a hydrocarbon lake, "we have good confidence the probe will survive landing," said Lebreton. "The landing speed is very low and there is a very good probability the probe will survive landing and we have capability to do measurements for half an hour on the surface. During the three-hour measurement phase, the probe will transmit its data to the overflying orbiter." Huygens is shown landing on the surface of Titan in this illustration. Credit: ESAThe original flight plan called for Huygens to enter Titan's atmosphere in late November as Cassini streaked overhead at an altitude of just 746 miles. But engineers were forced to delay Huygens' arrival to January    because of an issue with the radio aboard the Cassini mothership that will be used to relay data from Huygens to Earth.    During a post-launch test, engineers discovered the radio receiver could not cope with the Doppler shift in the frequency of the signal coming from Huygens due to Cassini's high relative velocity. Much like the pitch of a siren changes as a police car races past a stationary observer, the frequency of radio waves can shift a significant amount if relative velocities are high enough.    "Originally, the closing speed of Cassini coming up on Huygens, which is for all practical purposes sitting still once it's in the atmosphere, the closing speed was about 5.8 kilometers per second (13,000 mph)," Mitchell said in a recent interview. "And because we were coming in almost dead overhead and going off to the right at about 1,200 kilometers (746 miles) altitude."    The solution was to minimize the Doppler shift by reducing the relative velocities of the two spacecraft. That was accomplished by changing Cassini's trajectory slightly and delaying Huygens' release to Christmas Eve. During the Jan. 14 descent, Cassini now will be 37,300 miles from Titan and the difference in velocity between the two spacecraft will never be more than 8,500 mph.    "We have pretty solid evidence that's going to work," Mitchell said. "We did some tests where we used the Deep Space Network stations transmitting an S-band signal with telemetry modulated onto the carrier so that from the receiver's point of view on the Cassini spacecraft, it should have simulated the probe quite accurately. We adjusted the frequency, taking into account the motion of everything, so that the frequency of the received signal at the receiver should very closely if not exactly match the frequency that the receiver will see coming from Huygens."       This illustration shows Cassini receiving data from Huygens for relay to scientists on Earth. Credit: ESAThe tests were successful and a potentially crippling design flaw was resolved with no significant loss of science.    Lunine can hardly wait. "We ought to be able to see a pretty good panorama of the area that the Huygens probe is going to land in," he said in an interview, describing the descent. "Those pictures will continue all the way down to the surface, they'll be interrupted right at the end when the camera switches over to take what are called spectra, which will tell us about the composition of the surface. So we ought to be able to get a pretty good panorama to start with.    "We ought to be able to see whether the probe came down in an area that's mostly craters or other kinds of land forms. We ought to be able to get a hint of whether there might be pools or lakes of liquid in that area. It won't be immediately apparent whether dark places are liquid or solid, but depending on where the probe lands, we might get some direct information on that. And we might see clouds in the sky toward the horizon.    "There may be some detection of lightning," he said, "although there probably isn't a lot of lightning in Titan's atmosphere. And then after impact, or touchdown, if the antennas aren't pointed in a strange direction, we should be able to get some information about the surface. If we're lucky enough to land in liquid, then the probe should be bobbing up and down and there's a tilt meter that will tell us that. And we might be able to get samples of surface material because the probe will still be warm and anything like these liquid hydrocarbons will vaporize and go up into the sample inlets."MISSION PREVIEWStargaze II DVDThe Stargaze II DVD has arrived! It features over 65 minutes of all new videos of the universe with newly-composed dolby digital and DTS 5.1 Channel surround sound music. Choose your store: -    -    - Solar system poster    This new poster is popular for classrooms and children's bedrooms. It includes interesting facts and figures about the planets and their moons. Choose your store: -    -    - Apollo 15 DVD Relive on DVD the journey of Apollo 15, one of the great explorations of our time. This unique six- disc DVD set contains all the available television and 16mm film footage from the mission.Choose your store: -    -    - Shuttle patchesCollect the official mission patches for the first ten space shuttle flights and save off the regular price. Introducing the Space Shuttle Patch Collection.Choose your store: -    -    -    |    |    |    |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini captures Saturn moon red-handed          CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: December 4, 2004Stealing is a crime on Earth, but at Saturn, apparently it is routine.    The Cassini spacecraft has witnessed Saturn's moon Prometheus snatching particles from one of Saturn's rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version This potato-shaped moon is also believed to be responsible for kinks within Saturn's thin F ring, a contorted, narrow ring flanked by two small moons, Prometheus and Pandora.    The thievery and the detailed behavior of kinks were observed for the first time ever in images taken by the Cassini spacecraft.In an image taken on Oct. 29, Prometheus is seen stealing particles from the F ring while connected to the ringlets by a faint streak of material. A movie sequence of the ring, taken on Oct. 28, captures in freeze-frame motion the zigzagging kinks and knots, some of which are almost certainly caused by Prometheus.The kinks look like "hiccups" traveling around the ring.    Consisting of 44 frames taken three minutes apart, the sequence represents almost two hours, or about one-eighth of the orbital period of F ring particles around the planet.Cassini was on a flight path that took the spacecraft away from the planet and farther south, so that the rings appear to tilt upward. The top portion of the F ring is closer to the spacecraft, while the bottom portion is farther away and curves around the far side of Saturn.Scientists are not sure exactly how Prometheus is interacting with the F ring here, but they have speculated that the moon might be gravitationally pulling material away from the ring.    Scientists speculate that the ring particles may end up in a slightly different orbit from the one they were in prior to getting a 'kick' from the moon. These kicks occur at specific locations in the rings and can actually cause large waves or knots to form.    In the still image, gaps in the diffuse inner strands are seen. All these features appear to be due to the influence of Prometheus in ways that are not fully understood.Saturn's moon Prometheus is following in the footsteps of the legendary Titan for which it is named.    In Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from the gods and gave it to the mortals.Scientists will use what they learn about Prometheus' interaction with the F ring to understand the gravitational exchanges between moons and rings, which give rise to so much of the structure that is observed in Saturn's rings. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency.    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.    The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    | |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini conducts major orbit adjustment maneuver          CASSINI MISSION CONTROL REPORTPosted: August 23, 2004 The Cassini spacecraft successfully completed a 51-minute engine burn that will raise its next closest approach distance to Saturn by nearly 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles). The maneuver was necessary to keep the spacecraft from passing through the rings and to put it on target for its first close encounter with Saturn's moon Titan on Oct. 26. Mission controllers received confirmation of a successful burn at 11:15 a.m. Pacific Time today.    The spacecraft is approaching the highest point in its first and largest orbit about Saturn.    Its distance from the center of Saturn is about 9 million kilometers (5.6 million miles), and its speed just prior to today's burn was 325 meters per second (727 miles per hour) relative to Saturn.    That means it is nearly at a standstill compared to its speed of about 30,000 meters per second (67,000 miles per hour) at the completion of its orbit insertion burn on June 30."Saturn orbit insertion got us into orbit and this maneuver sets us up for the tour," said Joel Signorelli, spacecraft system engineer for the Cassini-Huygens mission at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.The maneuver was the third longest engine burn for the Cassini spacecraft and the last planned pressurized burn in the four-year tour.    The Saturn obit insertion burn was 97 minutes long, and the deep space maneuver in Dec. 1998 was 88 minutes long. "The October 26 Titan encounter will be much closer than our last one.    We'll fly by Titan at an altitude of 1,200 kilometers (746 miles), 'dipping our toe' into its atmosphere," said Signorelli.    Cassini's first Titan flyby on July 2 was from 340,000 kilometers (211,000 miles) away.Over the next four years, the Cassini orbiter will execute 45 Titan flybys as close as approximately 950 kilometers (590 miles) from the moon. In January 2005, the European-built Huygens probe that is attached to Cassini will descend through Titan's atmosphere to the surface.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini- Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    |    |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini craft reveals Saturn's cool rings CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: September 2, 2004 The Cassini spacecraft has taken the most detailed temperature measurements to date of Saturn's rings.    Data taken by the composite infrared spectrometer instrument on the spacecraft while entering Saturn's orbit show the cool and relatively warm regions of the rings.       Credit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaThis false-color image shows that the temperatures on the unlit side of Saturn's rings vary from a relatively warm 110 Kelvin (-261 degrees Fahrenheit, shown in red), to a cool 70 Kelvin (-333 degrees Fahrenheit, shown in blue).    The green represents a temperature of 90 Kelvin (-298 degrees Fahrenheit). Water freezes at 273 Kelvin (32 degrees Fahrenheit). The data show that the opaque region of the rings, like the outer A ring (on the far right) and the middle B ring, are cooler, while more transparent sections, like the Cassini Division (in red just inside the A ring) or the inner C ring (shown in yellow and red), are warmer. Scientists had predicted this might be the case, because the opaque ring areas would let less light through, and the transparent areas, more.    These results also show, for the first time, that individual ringlets in the C ring and the Cassini Division are cooler than the surrounding, more transparent regions.The temperature data were taken on July 1, 2004, shortly after Saturn orbit insertion.    Cassini is so close to the planet that no pictures of the unlit side of the rings are available, hence the temperature data was mapped onto a picture of the lit side of the rings. Saturn is overexposed and pure white in this picture.    Saturn's moon Enceladus is visible below the rings, toward the center.The composite infrared spectrometer, one of 12 instruments on Cassini, will measure infrared emissions from atmospheres, rings and surfaces.    This spectrometer will create vertical profiles of temperature and gas composition for the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn.    During Cassini's four-year tour, the instrument will also gather information on the thermal properties and composition of Saturn's rings and icy moons.?Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science and Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer team is based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    |    |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini discoveries shed light on Saturn and Titan          NASA ANNOUNCEMENTPosted: August 5, 2004The Cassini spacecraft, which began its tour of the Saturn system just over a month ago, has detected lightning and a new radiation belt at Saturn, and a glow around the planet's largest moon, Titan.       The magnetospheric imaging instrument onboard Cassini recently discovered a new radiation belt just above Saturn's cloud tops, up to the inner edge of the D-ring. Before this discovery, it was not anticipated that such a trapped ion population could be sustained inside the rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/APLThe spacecraft's radio and plasma wave science instrument detected radio waves generated by lightning. "We are detecting the same crackle and pop one hears when listening to an AM radio broadcast during a thunderstorm," said Dr. Bill Kurth, deputy principal investigator on the radio and plasma wave instrument, University of Iowa, Iowa City. "These storms are dramatically different than those observed 20 years ago."Cassini finds radio bursts from this lightning are highly episodic. There are large variations in the occurrence of lightning from day to day, sometimes with little or no lightning, suggesting a number of different, possibly short-lived storms, at mid- to high latitudes. Voyager observed lightning from an extended storm system at low latitudes, which lasted for months and appeared highly regular from one day to the next. The difference in storm characteristics may be related to very different shadowing conditions in the 1980s than they are now. During the Voyager time period when lightning was first observed, the rings cast a very deep shadow near Saturn's equator. As a result, the atmosphere in a narrow band was permanently in shadow -- making it cold -- and located right next to the hottest in Saturn's atmosphere. Turbulence between the hot and cold regions could have led to long-lived storms. However, during Cassini's approach and entry into Saturn's orbit, it is summer in the southern hemisphere and the ring shadow is distributed widely over a large portion of the northern hemisphere. This causes the hottest and coldest regions to be far apart.A major finding of the magnetospheric imaging instrument is the discovery of a new radiation belt just above Saturn's cloud tops, up to the inner edge of the D-ring. This is the first time that a new Saturnian radiation belt has been discovered with remote sensing. This new radiation belt extends around the planet. It was detected by the emission of fast neutral atoms created as its magnetically trapped ions interact with gas clouds located planetward of the D-ring. With this discovery, the radiation belts are shown to extend far closer to the planet than previously known. "This new radiation belt had eluded detection by any of the spacecraft that previously visited Saturn. With its discovery we have seen something that we did not expect, that radiation belt particles can 'hop' over obstructions like Saturn's rings, without being absorbed by the rings in the process," said Dr. Donald G. Mitchell, instrument scientist for the magnetospheric imaging instrument at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md.Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is also shining for attention. Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer captured Titan glowing both day and night, powered by emissions from methane and carbon monoxide gases in the moon's extensive, thick atmosphere.       The glow of Titan's extensive atmosphere shines in false colors in this view of Saturn's gas-enshrouded moon acquired by the Cassini spacecraft visual and infrared mapping spectrometer during the July 2, 2004, flyby. This image is a combination of near- infrared colors, each of which probes different phenomena in the moon. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona"Not only is Titan putting on a great light show but it is also teaching us more about its dense atmosphere," said Dr. Kevin Baines, science team member for the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "What is amazing is that the size of this glow or emission of gases is a sixth the diameter of the planet," he added.The Sun-illuminated fluorescent glow of methane throughout Titan's upper atmosphere -- revealing the atmosphere's immense thickness and extending more than 700 kilometers (435 miles) above the surface, was expected. However, the nighttime glow, persistently shining over the night side of Titan, initially surprised scientists. "These images are as if you were seeing Titan through alien eyes. Titan glows throughout the near-infrared spectrum. If you were an alien it would be hard to get a good night's sleep on Titan because the light would always be on," Baines said.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    |    |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini discovers ring and one, maybe two, objects          CASSINI NEWS RELEASEPosted: September 9, 2004 Scientists examining Saturn's contorted F ring, which has baffled them since its discovery, have found one small body, possibly two, orbiting in the F ring region, and a ring of material associated with Saturn's moon Atlas.       A new found ring of material, S/2004 1 R, in the orbit of Saturn's moon Atlas has been seen in this view of the region between the edge of Saturn's A ring and the F ring. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version A small object was discovered moving near the outside edge of the F ring, interior to the orbit of Saturn's moon Pandora. The object was seen by Dr. Carl Murray, imaging team member at Queen Mary, University of London, in images taken on June 21, 2004, just days before Cassini arrived at Saturn. "I noticed this barely detectable object skirting the outer part of the F ring. It was an incredible privilege to be the first person to spot it," he said. Murray's group at Queen Mary then calculated an orbit for the object.Scientists cannot yet definitively say if the object is a moon or a temporary clump. If it is a moon, its diameter is estimated at four to five kilometers (two to three miles) and it is located 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) from the F ring, Saturn's outmost ring. It is at a distance of approximately 141,000 kilometers (86,000 miles) from the center of Saturn and within 300 kilometers (190 miles) of the orbit of the moon Pandora. The object has been provisionally named S/2004 S3. Scientists are not sure if the object is alone. This is because of results from a search through other images that might capture the object to pin down its orbit. The search by Dr. Joseph Spitale, a planetary scientist working with team leader Dr. Carolyn Porco at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo., revealed something strange. Spitale said, "When I went to look for additional images of this object to refine its orbit, I found that about five hours after first being sighted, it seemed to be orbiting interior to the F ring," said Spitale. "If this is the same object then it has an orbit that crosses the F ring, which makes it a strange object." Because of the puzzling dynamical implications of having a body that crosses the ring, the inner object sighted by Spitale is presently considered a separate object with the temporary designation S/2004 S 4.    S4 is roughly the same size as S3.       A small new found object, temporarily designated S/2004 S 3, has been seen orbiting Saturn's outer F ring. The tiny object, seen centered in a green box, orbits the planet at a distance of approximately 141,000 kilometers (86,420 miles) from the center of Saturn. Its nature, moon or clump, is not presently known. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version In the process of examining the F ring region, Murray also detected a previously unknown ring, S/2004 1R, associated with Saturn's moon, Atlas. "We knew from Voyager that the region between the main rings and the F ring is dusty, but the role of the moons in this region was a mystery," said Murray. "It was while studying the F ring in these images that I discovered the faint ring of material. My immediate hunch was that it might be associated with the orbit of one of Saturn's moons, and after some calculation I identified Atlas as the prime suspect." The ring is located 138,000 kilometers (86,000 miles) from the center of Saturn in the orbit of the moon Atlas, between the A ring and the F ring. The width of the ring is estimated at 300 kilometers (190 miles). The ring was first spotted in images taken after orbit insertion on July 1, 2004. There is no way of knowing yet if it extends all the way around the planet."We have planned many images to search the region between the A and F rings for diffuse material and new moons, which we have long expected to be there on the basis of the peculiar behavior of the F ring," said Porco. "Now we have found something but, as is usual for the F ring, what we see is perplexing."Searches will continue for further detections of the newfound body or bodies seen in association with the F ring. If the two objects indeed turn out to be a single moon, it will bring the Saturn moon count to 34. The newfound ring adds to the growing number of narrow ringlets around Saturn.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. UK scientists are playing significant roles in the mission with involvement in six of the 12 instruments onboard the Cassini orbiter and two of the six instruments on the Huygens probe.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    | |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini diverts from collision course with moon Titan CASSINI MISSION STATUS REPORTPosted: December 28, 2004NASA's Cassini spacecraft successfully performed a getaway maneuver on Monday, Dec. 27, to keep it from following the European Space Agency's Huygens probe into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. This maneuver established the required geometry between the probe and the orbiter for radio communications during the probe descent on Jan. 14.    The probe has no navigating capability, so the Cassini orbiter had been placed on a deliberate collision course with Titan to ensure the accurate delivery of the probe to Titan. The Huygens probe successfully detached from the Cassini orbiter on Dec. 24.    All systems performed as expected.The European Space Agency's Huygens probe will be the first human-made object to explore on-site the unique environment of Titan, whose chemistry is thought to be very similar to that of early Earth before life arose. Next for Cassini is a flyby of Saturn's icy moon Iapetus on Dec. 31. Iapetus is Saturn's two-faced moon -- one side is very bright, and the other is very dark.    One scenario for this striking difference is that the moon's surface is being resurfaced by some material spewing from within.The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since June 30, 2004, and has returned stunning pictures of Saturn, its rings and many moons.    Titan has already been the subject of two close flybys by Cassini.    With 43 more flybys planned and the in-situ measurements made by the probe, it is likely only a matter of time before Titan's secrets begin to unfold.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency.    JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.    JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.    The European Space Agency built and managed the development of the Huygens probe and is in charge of the probe operations. The Italian Space Agency provided the high- gain antenna, much of the radio system and elements of several of Cassini's science instruments.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    | |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini exposes Saturn's two-face moon Iapetus          CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 15, 2004The moon with the split personality, Iapetus, presents a perplexing appearance in the latest images snapped by the Cassini spacecraft.       Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger image version One hemisphere of the moon is very dark, while the other is very bright. Scientists do not yet know the origin of the dark material or whether or not it is representative of the interior of Iapetus.Iapetus (pronounced eye-APP-eh-tuss) is one of Saturn's 31 known moons.    Its diameter is about one third that of our own moon at 1,436 kilometers (892 miles).    This image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on July 3, 2004, from a distance of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles) from Iapetus. The brightness variations in this image are not due to shadowing, they are real.During Cassini's four-year tour, the spacecraft will continue to image Iapetus and conduct two close encounters.    One of those encounters, several years from now, will be at a mere 1,000 kilometers (622 miles).Iapetus was discovered by the Italian-French astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini in 1672. He correctly deduced that the trailing hemisphere is composed of highly reflective material, while the leading hemisphere is strikingly darker. This sets Iapetus apart from Saturn's other moons and Jupiter's moons, which tend to be brighter on their leading hemispheres. Voyager images show that the bright side of Iapetus, which reflects nearly 50 percent of the light it receives, is fairly typical of a heavily cratered icy satellite.    The leading side consists of much darker, redder material that has a reflectivity of only about 3 to 4 percent. One scenario for the outside deposit of material has dark particles being ejected from Saturn's little moon Phoebe and drifting inward to coat Iapetus.    One observation lending credence to an internal origin is the concentration of material on crater floors, which is suggestive of something filling in the craters.    Iapetus is odd in other respects.    It is in a moderately inclined orbit, one that takes it far above and below the plane in which the rings and most of the moons orbit.    It is less dense than many of the other satellites, which suggests a higher fraction of ice or possibly methane or ammonia in its interior.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini- Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL.    The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    | |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini eyes the culprit          CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: October 11, 2004 Gazing beyond Saturn's magnificent rings, Cassini spotted the cause of the dark gap visible in the foreground of this image: Mimas, which is 398 kilometers (247 miles) wide. The gravitational influence of Mimas is responsible for the 4,800 kilometer- (2,980 mile-) wide Cassini division, which stretches across the lower left portion of this view. The little moon is at a nearly half-full phase in this view. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version A small clump of material is visible in the narrow F ring, beyond the edge of the main rings. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of 8.9 million kilometers (5.5 million miles) from Mimas and at a Sun-Mimas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 88 degrees. The image scale is 54 kilometers (34 miles) per pixel. The image was magnified by a factor of four to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. |    |    | |    2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini finds evidence for water on Enceladus          BY WILLIAM HARWOOD
 


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