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Actually 2 good introductions to Jung and his key concepts run together - these are very good.

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Jung, Carl Gustav (1875-1961) And Psycho Analysis







Swiss psychiatrist, who founded the analytical school of psychology. Jung broadened Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical approach, interpreting mental and emotional disturbances as an attempt to find personal and spiritual wholeness.

Born on July 26, 1875, in Kesswil, Switzerland, the son of a Protestant clergyman, Jung developed during his lonely childhood an inclination for dreaming and fantasy that greatly influenced his adult work. After graduating in medicine in 1902 from the universities of Basel and Zürich, with a wide background in biology, zoology, paleontology, and archaeology, he began his work on word association, in which a patient's responses to stimulus words revealed what Jung called “complexes” — a term that has since become universal. These studies brought him international renown and led him to a close collaboration with Freud. With the publication of Psychology of the Unconscious (1912; trans. 1916), however, Jung declared his independence from Freud's narrowly sexual interpretation of the libido by showing the close parallels between ancient myths and psychotic fantasies and by explaining human motivation in terms of a larger creative energy. He gave up the presidency of the International Psychoanalytic Society and cofounded a movement called analytical psychology.

During his remaining 50 years Jung developed his theories, drawing on a wide knowledge of mythology and history; travels to diverse cultures in New Mexico, India, and Kenya; and especially the dreams and fantasies of his childhood. In 1921 he published a major work, Psychological Types (trans. 1923), in which he dealt with the relationship between the conscious and unconscious and proposed the now well-known personality types, extrovert and introvert. He later made a distinction between the personal unconscious, or the repressed feelings and thoughts developed during an individual's life, and the collective unconscious, or those inherited feelings, thoughts, and memories shared by all humanity. The collective unconscious, according to Jung, is made up of what he called “archetypes,” or primordial images. These correspond to such experiences as confronting death or choosing a mate and manifest themselves symbolically in religions, myths, fairy tales, and fantasies.

Jung's therapeutic approach aimed at reconciling the diverse states of personality, which he saw divided not only into the opposites of introvert and extrovert, but also into those of sensing and intuiting, and of feeling and thinking. By understanding how the personal unconscious integrates with the collective unconscious, Jung theorized, a patient can achieve a state of individuation, or wholeness of self.

Jung wrote voluminously, especially on analytical methods and the relationships between psychotherapy and religious belief. He died on June 6, 1961, in Küsnacht.


I. Introduction


Psychoanalysis, name applied to a specific method of investigating unconscious mental processes and to a form of psychotherapy. The term refers, as well, to the systematic structure of psychoanalytic theory, which is based on the relation of conscious and unconscious psychological processes.


II. Theory of Psychoanalysis


The technique of psychoanalysis and much of the psychoanalytic theory based on its application were developed by Sigmund Freud. His work concerning the structure and the functioning of the human mind had far-reaching significance, both practically and scientifically, and it continues to influence contemporary thought.


A. The Unconscious


The first of Freud's innovations was his recognition of unconscious psychiatric processes that follow laws different from those that govern conscious experience. Under the influence of the unconscious, thoughts and feelings that belong together may be shifted or displaced out of context; two disparate ideas or images may be condensed into one; thoughts may be dramatized in the form of images rather than expressed as abstract concepts; and certain objects may be represented symbolically by images of other objects, although the resemblance between the symbol and the original object may be vague or farfetched. The laws of logic, indispensable for conscious thinking, do not apply to these unconscious mental productions.

Recognition of these modes of operation in unconscious mental processes made possible the understanding of such previously incomprehensible psychological phenomena as dreaming. Through analysis of unconscious processes, Freud saw dreams as serving to protect sleep against disturbing impulses arising from within and related to early life experiences. Thus, unacceptable impulses and thoughts, called the latent dream content, are transformed into a conscious, although no longer immediately comprehensible , experience called the manifest dream. Knowledge of these unconscious mechanisms permits the analyst to reverse the so-called dream work, that is, the process by which the latent dream is transformed into the manifest dream, and through dream interpretation, to recognize its underlying meaning.


B. Instinctual Drives


A basic assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious conflicts involve instinctual impulses, or drives, that originate in childhood. As these unconscious conflicts are recognized by the patient through analysis, his or her adult mind can find solutions that were unattainable to the immature mind of the child. This depiction of the role of instinctual drives in human life is a unique feature of Freudian theory.

According to Freud's doctrine of infantile sexuality, adult sexuality is an end product of a complex process of development, beginning in childhood, involving a variety of body functions or areas (oral, anal, and genital zones), and corresponding to various stages in the relation of the child to adults, especially to parents. Of crucial importance is the so-called Oedipal period, occurring at about four to six years of age, because at this stage of development the child for the first time becomes capable of an emotional attachment to the parent of the opposite sex that is similar to the adult's relationship to a mate; the child simultaneously reacts as a rival to the parent of the same sex. Physical immaturity dooms the child's desires to frustration and his or her first step toward adulthood to failure. Intellectual immaturity further complicates the situation because it makes children afraid of their own fantasies. The extent to which the child overcomes these emotional upheavals and to which these attachments, fears, and fantasies continue to live on in the unconscious greatly influences later life, especially love relationships.

The conflicts occurring in the earlier developmental stages are no less significant as a formative influence, because these problems represent the earliest prototypes of such basic human situations as dependency on others and relationship to authority. Also basic in molding the personality of the individual is the behavior of the parents toward the child during these stages of development. The fact that the child reacts, not only to objective reality, but also to fantasy distortions of reality, however, greatly complicates even the best-intentioned educational efforts.



C. Id, Ego, and Superego


The effort to clarify the bewildering number of interrelated observations uncovered by psychoanalytic exploration led to the development of a model of the structure of the psychic system. Three functional systems are distinguished that are conveniently designated as the id, ego, and superego.

The first system refers to the sexual and aggressive tendencies that arise from the body, as distinguished from the mind. Freud called these tendencies Triebe, which literally means "drives," but which is often inaccurately translated as "instincts" to indicate their innate character. These inherent drives claim immediate satisfaction, which is experienced as pleasurable; the id thus is dominated by the pleasure principle. In his later writings, Freud tended more toward psychological rather than biological conceptualization of the drives.

How the conditions for satisfaction are to be brought about is the task of the second system, the ego, which is the domain of such functions as perception, thinking, and motor control that can accurately assess environmental conditions. In order to fulfill its function of adaptation, or reality testing, the ego must be capable of enforcing the postponement of satisfaction of the instinctual impulses originating in the id. To defend itself against unacceptable impulses, the ego develops specific psychic means, known as defense mechanisms. These include repression, the exclusion of impulses from conscious awareness; projection, the process of ascribing to others one's own unacknowledged desires; and reaction formation, the establishment of a pattern of behavior directly opposed to a strong unconscious need. Such defense mechanisms are put into operation whenever anxiety signals a danger that the original unacceptable impulses may reemerge.

An id impulse becomes unacceptable, not only as a result of a temporary need for postponing its satisfaction until suitable reality conditions can be found, but more often because of a prohibition imposed on the individual by others, originally the parents. The totality of these demands and prohibitions constitutes the major content of the third system, the superego, the function of which is to control the ego in accordance with the internalized standards of parental figures. If the demands of the superego are not fulfilled, the person may feel shame or guilt. Because the superego, in Freudian theory, originates in the struggle to overcome the Oedipal conflict, it has a power akin to an instinctual drive, is in part unconscious, and can give rise to feelings of guilt not justified by any conscious transgression. The ego, having to mediate among the demands of the id, the superego, and the outside world, may not be strong enough to reconcile these conflicting forces. The more the ego is impeded in its development because of being enmeshed in its earlier conflicts, called fixations or complexes, or the more it reverts to earlier satisfactions and archaic modes of functioning, known as regression, the greater is the likelihood of succumbing to these pressures. Unable to function normally, it can maintain its limited control and integrity only at the price of symptom formation, in which the tensions are expressed in neurotic symptoms.


D. Anxiety


A cornerstone of modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the concept of anxiety, which institutes appropriate mechanisms of defense against certain danger situations. These danger situations, as described by Freud, are the fear of abandonment by or the loss of the loved one (the object), the risk of losing the object's love, the danger of retaliation and punishment, and, finally, the hazard of reproach by the superego. Thus, symptom formation, character and impulse disorders, and perversions, as well as sublimations, represent compromise formations—different forms of an adaptive integration that the ego tries to achieve through more or less successfully reconciling the different conflicting forces in the mind.




III. Psychoanalytic Schools


Various psychoanalytic schools have adopted other names for their doctrines to indicate deviations from Freudian theory.


A. Carl Jung


Carl Gustav Jung, one of the earliest pupils of Freud, eventually created a school that he preferred to call analytical psychology. Like Freud, Jung used the concept of the libido; however, to him it meant not only sexual drives, but a composite of all creative instincts and impulses and the entire motivating force of human conduct. According to his theories, the unconscious is composed of two parts; the personal unconscious, which contains the results of the individual's entire experience, and the collective unconscious, the reservoir of the experience of the human race. In the collective unconscious exist a number of primordial images, or archetypes, common to all individuals of a given country or historical era. Archetypes take the form of bits of intuitive knowledge or apprehension and normally exist only in the collective unconscious of the individual. When the conscious mind contains no images, however, as in sleep, or when the consciousness is caught off guard, the archetypes commence to function. Archetypes are primitive modes of thought and tend to personify natural processes in terms of such mythological concepts as good and evil spirits, fairies, and dragons. The mother and the father also serve as prominent archetypes.

An important concept in Jung's theory is the existence of two basically different types of personality, mental attitude, and function. When the libido and the individual's general interest are turned outward toward people and objects of the external world, he or she is said to be extroverted. When the reverse is true, and libido and interest are centered on the individual, he or she is said to be introverted. In a completely normal individual these two tendencies alternate, neither dominating, but usually the libido is directed mainly in one direction or the other; as a result, two personality types are recognizable.

Jung rejected Freud's distinction between the ego and superego and recognized a portion of the personality, somewhat similar to the superego, that he called the persona. The persona consists of what a person appears to be to others, in contrast to what he or she actually is. The persona is the role the individual chooses to play in life, the total impression he or she wishes to make on the outside world.


B. Alfred Adler


Alfred Adler, another of Freud's pupils, differed from both Freud and Jung in stressing that the motivating force in human life is the sense of inferiority, which begins as soon as an infant is able to comprehend the existence of other people who are better able to care for themselves and cope with their environment. From the moment the feeling of inferiority is established, the child strives to overcome it. Because inferiority is intolerable, the compensatory mechanisms set up by the mind may get out of hand, resulting in self-centered neurotic attitudes, overcompensations, and a retreat from the real world and its problems.

Adler laid particular stress on inferiority feelings arising from what he regarded as the three most important relationships: those between the individual and work, friends, and loved ones. The avoidance of inferiority feelings in these relationships leads the individual to adopt a life goal that is often not realistic and frequently is expressed as an unreasoning will to power and dominance, leading to every type of antisocial behavior from bullying and boasting to political tyranny. Adler believed that analysis can foster a sane and rational "community feeling" that is constructive rather than destructive.


C. Otto Rank


Another student of Freud, Otto Rank, introduced a new theory of neurosis, attributing all neurotic disturbances to the primary trauma of birth. In his later writings he described individual development as a progression from complete dependence on the mother and family, to a physical independence coupled with intellectual dependence on society, and finally to complete intellectual and psychological emancipation. Rank also laid great importance on the will, defined as "a positive guiding organization and integration of self, which utilizes creatively as well as inhibits and controls the instinctual drives."


D. Other Psychoanalytic Schools


Later noteworthy modifications of psychoanalytic theory include those of the American psychoanalysts Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, and Harry Stack Sullivan. The theories of Fromm lay particular emphasis on the concept that society and the individual are not separate and opposing forces, that the nature of society is determined by its historic background, and that the needs and desires of individuals are largely formed by their society. As a result, Fromm believed, the fundamental problem of psychoanalysis and psychology is not to resolve conflicts between fixed and unchanging instinctive drives in the individual and the fixed demands and laws of society, but to bring about harmony and an understanding of the relationship between the individual and society. Fromm also stressed the importance to the individual of developing the ability to fully use his or her mental, emotional, and sensory powers.

Horney worked primarily in the field of therapy and the nature of neuroses, which she defined as of two types: situation neuroses and character neuroses. Situation neuroses arise from the anxiety attendant on a single conflict, such as being faced with a difficult decision. Although they may paralyze the individual temporarily, making it impossible to think or act efficiently, such neuroses are not deeply rooted. Character neuroses are characterized by a basic anxiety and a basic hostility resulting from a lack of love and affection in childhood.

Sullivan believed that all development can be described exclusively in terms of interpersonal relations. Character types as well as neurotic symptoms are explained as results of the struggle against anxiety arising from the individual's relations with others and are a security system, maintained for the purpose of allaying anxiety.


E. Melanie Klein


An important school of thought is based on the teachings of the British psychoanalyst Melanie Klein. Because most of Klein's followers worked with her in England, this has come to be known as the English school. Its influence, nevertheless, is very strong throughout the European continent and in South America. Its principal theories were derived from observations made in the psychoanalysis of children. Klein posited the existence of complex unconscious fantasies in children under the age of six months. The principal source of anxiety arises from the threat to existence posed by the death instinct. Depending on how concrete representations of the destructive forces are dealt with in the unconscious fantasy life of the child, two basic early mental attitudes result that Klein characterized as a "depressive position" and a "paranoid position." In the paranoid position, the ego's defense consists of projecting the dangerous internal object onto some external representative, which is treated as a genuine threat emanating from the external world. In the depressive position, the threatening object is introjected and treated in fantasy as concretely retained within the person. Depressive and hypochondriacal symptoms result. Although considerable doubt exists that such complex unconscious fantasies operate in the minds of infants, these observations have been of the utmost importance to the psychology of unconscious fantasies, paranoid delusions, and theory concerning early object relations.


Material Leached from the Occultopedia.com reference to Carl Jung and the encarta.msn.com reference to Psychoanalysis.





Carl Jung

(1875-1961)


Three major themes:

1. Person unconscious is supplemented by a "collective unconscious" consisting of universal images.

2. Spiritual needs are at least equally, if not more important, than basic biological needs ("search for meaning").

3. Introverts try to harmonize inner conflicts into a whole self. Extravert try to harmonize self with social realities.


"Life, so-called, is a short episode between two great mysteries, which yet are one". Jung is different.



Core of Personality



I. Core Tendency: The tendency toward the attainment of selfhood. Selfhood is a balance between the opposing forces of personality and includes both unconscious and conscious material. This process really begins in earnest around the late 30's or early 40's (Jung was 38 when he split with Freud). The self is best conceptualized as the hub of a wheel with spokes going out as opposing forces. Just like the sun is the center of the solar system, so the self is the center of personality. The goal of development is wholeness (and balance), not perfection. The process of achieving selfhood utilizes energy principles and the transcendent function.

A. Energy Principles:

1. Principle of Equivalence (similar to first law of thermodynamics). An increase of energy in one area will be accompanied by a decrease of energy in the opposite area and vice versa. For example, energy moved inward (introspection) takes energy away from external activity. Energy taken from the ego must go somewhere else (such as personal unconscious).

2. Principle of Entropy (similar to second law of thermodynamics). The distribution of energy in the psyche seeks an equilibrium or balance. The ideal state of selfhood is balanced, but not conflict free. This is essentially a closed hydraulic model, except for the concept of the transcendent function.

3. Principle of Opposites. This is best summarized by Hegel's statement that "everything carries with it its own negation". The only way we can know anything is by contrast with an opposite. A partial list of opposites in Jung's theory would include the following:

conscious-unconscious good-bad rational-irrational extravert-introvert masculine-feminine birth-death animal-spiritual think-feel causality-teleology sense-intuit


4. Transcendent Function. This is one of his more confusing concepts. It refers to the integrating activity of the self, the process that joins various opposing forces into a coherent middle ground. (Incidentally, in mathematics, a transcendent function is a function of real and imaginary numbers).

5. Mandala: From the Sanskrit word meaning "Magic circle", this is the symbol for wholeness and perfection, and thus the symbol of the self. The old way of looking at traits was as a linear progression from one to another:

introvert (1) <------> extravert (10)

For Jung, a better symbol is the circle, because any point on a circle can be viewed as either two forces racing apart or two forces coming together. Circles are typically cut into quarters and can be seen as the balancing of the quadrants.

6. Paradoxical Unity: This is the manner by which opposites can be reconciled into wholeness. This is weird, but not without scientific precedent. In chemistry, the Heisenberg Principle of Uncertainty says that we can measure position or momentum of sub-atomic particles, but not both. Goedel's proof in mathematics says that if arithmetic is consistent, then it is incomplete; if complete, then it is inconsistent.

7. Christ as symbol of self: Jung speculated that Christ could be an archetypical symbol of the polarities of self and thus the paradoxical unity which allows us to synthesize the opposites into a conceptual whole. Two ways of viewing Christ as a symbol of self are presented below. unitemporal (once in time)

unique_________________________________________universal

eternal


Good (Christ)

Spiritual______________________________________Material (divine) (human) Bad (Antichrist)

B. Synchronicity: A relationship between events that is based on meaningful coincidence rather than cause and effect. One of his later (and controversial) concepts, this concept protects the theorist (and therapist) from the twin perils of feeling that everything is due to fate or of falling back on purely causal explanations which take away the mystery of life.

II. Core Characteristics

A. Ego: The conscious, individualistic mind; the center of consciousness (remember that the self is the center of personality). The ego is typically characterized by one dominant attitude (introversion/extraversion) and by one or two dominant functions (think/feel; sense/intuit).

B. Personal Unconscious: This is formed of socially unacceptable mental content that was once conscious but has been forced out of mental awareness by the defenses. Kind of like your personal mental garbage can.

1. Is in conflict with the ego.

2. Contains the complexes, which are unconscious clusters of emotionally laden thoughts that result in a disproportionate influence on behavior (ex: money complex, mother complex, Oedipus complex).

C. Collective Unconscious - Jung's "biggie"

1. Definition: A communal, species memory representing the accumulated experiences of mankind. It is a storehouse of latent predispositions to apprehend the world in particular ways. It is the deepest and most inaccessible layer of the psyche.

2. Origin of the concept. The same themes and symbols show up in all cultures to represent the same concept (mandala --> self, wholeness). Also in deja vu experiences and in dreams.

3. Collective Unconscious and Art: Freud tried to explain art in terms of unresolved unconscious conflicts and the neurosis of the artist. Jung says that great art is an expression of the collective unconscious and speaks to all of us. Example: Freud vs. Jung's interpretation of da Vinci's painting of St. Anne and Virgin with Christ Child.

D. Archetypes - the primary structures of the collective unconscious

1. Definition: An archetype is an inherited predisposition to respond to certain aspects of the world. Just as the ear and eye have evolved to be maximally sensitive to certain stimuli, we have evolved psychologically to be maximally sensitive to certain categories of experience. Must ask what all human beings have experienced. The list is long, but would certainly include birth, death, sun, mothers, fathers, heroes, demons, wise men, etc. Archetypes do not have content, only form. They are not unconscious ideas, rather predispositions to perceive. I will discuss a few of them.

2. Shadow: The shadow is both a part of the personality and a archetype.

a. Part of personality: The shadow is the dark side of your personality that contains the animal (and sexual) instincts. It is the opposite of the Persona (mask) and is the part of personality that is repressed from the ego ideal.

b. As archetype: The importance of the shadow is seen in its symbolic representation by devils, demons, evil spirits, Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde, Darth Vader ("The dark side of the force"), etc. Since "shadow-work" is an important aspect of therapy for Jung, I will discuss it in some detail.

c. How can we get to know our shadow? Through

(1) dreams

(2) fantasies (power, sex, money)

(3) repressions & slips of the tongue

(4) Often, when drunk (I didn't mean it)

d. Why get to know the shadow? Suppressing the shadow leads to a civilized life, but at the expense of spontaneity, creativity, and strong emotions.

(1) We need capacity for controlled anger.

(2) Gives us a healthy mistrust of others.

(3) Gives us a sense of humor

(4) Gives a sense of understanding and forgiveness.

e. Harmful effects of repressing the shadow.

(1) Produces a lack of balance. - Blue Angel movie with Marlene Dietrich.

(2) Shadow projection - can result racial and/or religious prejudice.

(3) Collective shadow/persona interactions: Beware of lack of integration. Look what the Nazis (Aryan Superiority) did to the Jews and we Americans (Manifest Destiny) did to the Indians. Have churches in one area of town, porno shops in another.

3. Persona: The persona is the public face (mask) one presents to the world for everyone else to see. It is in opposition to the shadow and is mostly conscious as a part of personality. Sometimes the persona is referred to as the "social archetype" since it involves all the compromises appropriate to living in a community.

a. The persona is heavily influenced by one's profession. Would you go to a neurosurgeon with messy hair and dirty clothes?

b. Inflated Persona: Jung found that many very successful people equate their entire personality with the persona and become extremely unhappy.

4. Animus: From the Greek word for "mind" (spirit). The male archetype in women. It predisposes woman to understand the nature of man, serves as the compensatory rational inner face of the sentimental female persona, and is experienced as a masculine voice within the psyche.

a. Shows up in opinions

b. Women must integrate the masculine "Logos" (thought).

5. Anima: From the Greek word for "soul". The female archetype in men. It predisposes man to understand the nature of woman, serves as the compensatory sentimental inner face of the rational male persona, and is experienced as a feminine voice within the psyche.

a. Shows up in moods

b. Men must integrate the feminine "Eros" (feelings).


Men and women should do a swap during development. During the first half of life, men should develop the animus (job, career), then become softer in second half of life. Women first develop the anima (work with children), then become tougher the second half of life (go into politics). Androgyny is the term Jung used for those who have fully developed both the masculine and feminine aspects of their personality.

6. Mother Archetype: From all cultures. Can be elicited in response to any "mothering "figure (real mother, stepmother,etc.) Symbolically seen as divine mother (virgin Mary), mother nature, mother church, alma mater, etc.

7. Trickster or Magical Archetype: Seen in many mythologies as mystical figures who are half human, half animal, and are fond of pranks and sly jokes.

8. Hero Archetype: In all societies, the hero (as opposed to the demon) slays the dragon or monster, suffers punishment for others, and rescues the vanquished and the downtrodden.

9. Archetype of "The Way": Life is seen in many cultures as a step-by step experience. The 8 steps to Nirvana; Christ: "I am the Way", holy pilgrimages, even drug trips.

10. Archetype of Rebirth: Long before Christianity, the ancient Greek cults baptized members to be "born again". Also, concept of reincarnation, seasons (in Spring, life comes from death).

11. Archetype of the Wise Old Man: Unfortunately, this archetype has lost much of its power in Western civilization. Prime example is King Solomon. However, should balance with he archetype of the fool. Jung once responded to one of his students who was talking about wisdom by saying "I am also an old fool... and have written a lot of nonsense".


Concluding comment: George Lucas was a close personal friend of Joseph Campbell who was a leading authority on mythology. Together, they created the Star Wars trilogy. Much of the symbolism of the movie was constructed following Jungian themes. Archetypical symbols seen in the films include

Lucas Skywalker - Hero

Obe Wan Kenobe - Good Father

Darth Vader - shadow ("dark side of the force")

Princess Leigh - Virgin

Yoda - wise old man

12. Recent research evidence relating to the possible existence of archetypes.

a. Ethology - "innate releasing mechanisms

b. Species-specific defense reactions

c. "preparedness"

E. Attitudes of the psyche: These are basic ways of relating to the world. They are probably genetic and relatively hard to change.

1. Introversion: psychic energy flows inward and tends to be concentrated on subjective factors and inner responses.

ego <-------- object

a. Tend to be quiet, imaginative, and interested in ideas.

b. Seeks harmony with the inner world - philosophy and religion

c. Famous introverts:

(1) Adler - feelings of inferiority

(2) Plato, Kant - discussions of "mind"

(3) Jung - concept of self as "balance"

2. Extraversion: psychic energy flows outward and is directed toward people, events, and things in the external world.

ego --------> object

a. Tend to be sociable, outgoing, and interested in people and things.

b. Seeks harmony with external world - physical and biological sciences

c. Famous extraverts:

(1) Darwin - survival of the fittest

(2) Freud - in conflict with society, sex

3. Comments:

a. Introversion and extraversion are opposites. If introversion is dominant, extraversion is unconscious and poorly developed. b. Extravert and introverts don't understand each other.

(1) Es view Is as dull and boring, cowards who are too chicken to really enjoy the world and all it has to offer.

(2) Is view Es as used car salesmen who are sleazy, shallow, cocky, and insensitive.

c. Es have an advantage the first half of life (conquer external world), Is have advantage during the second half (questions of meaning).

F. Functions of thought: How the person deals with information from the world.

1. Thinking: Tells what a thing is, gives names, categories to things (true, false), defines alternatives, and reasons objectively.

2. Feeling: Is basically evaluative; tells whether something is good/bad; acceptable/unacceptable; like/dislike. Do not confuse with emotion. Essential notion: Is the object of value?

3. Sensing: Tells you what exists; detects the presence of things. Does not evaluate. Is interested in facts and objects in the objective world; focus is on the trees.

4. Intuition: Uses hunches, sees possibilities, sees around corners and goes beyond the facts; focus in on the forest.


The four functions are grouped together as two opposing pairs. Thinking and feeling are called "Rational Functions", because they make judgements and evaluations - use reason and logic - in the evaluation of the external world. Sensing and Intuition are called "Irrational Functions", because they seem to go beyond reason and logic and represent a direct linkage to the external world. The pairing can be seen below.

tells what is (labels) Thinking


Sensing_______________________________________Intuition tells what is where it is going


Feeling tells what it is worth



The four functions, when combined with extraversion/introversion, yield eight possible combinations which will constitute the periphery of personality.



Development


Jung does not emphasize infantile sexuality or a stage approach. However, putting together Jung's writings and the writings of some of his followers, we can present an schema that emphasizes four seasons of life. As in the seasons of the calendar year, each stage represents a death to the previous season and a new life to the current season.


I. Childhood: Death is the womb (You did not ask to be born). Here the unconscious dominates. This is the Spring of Life - a new beginning. Robert Bly says that children have a 3600 personality. They are not innocent or "good", but they are balanced and not phoney. You have to learn to be out-of-balance and to lie and pretend to be what you are not.

A. Presexual Period (birth --> 3-5). Here the attitudes (extraversion/introversion) appear. This is a period of nutrition and growth. No real problems here because serious problems are not yet in consciousness.

B. Prepubital Period (3-5 --> puberty). Here the functions (think/feel; sense/intuit) appear. The sex instinct emerges, consciousness expands, and formal education begins. Still relatively carefree, because you are still so heavily dependent on parents, although parents can begin to force children to use functions that are not their natural functions.

II. Youth: Death is childhood (things of childhood no longer interest you). Here the persona dominates. This is the summer of life where the extravert has a slight advantage, because the focus is on the external world.

A. Adolescence: This is the true psychic birth, because it is the first time one can really be out of balance. Your parents can start this unbalance by forcing you to develop your unnatural attitude and functions. For example what happens to a feeler in an intellectually (think) ambitious family? Here you begin to form your self image. The conscious part of all opposite pairs stays in the persona, the rejected part goes into the shadow. Some opposites you will struggle with:

verbal vs action oriented controlled vs impulsive

passive vs aggressive warm vs cold

intellectual vs emotional loud vs quiet

rough vs gentle frugal vs restrained

B. Young Adulthood: Here you begin the process of separation from the family of origin. Your personality and work can become fused ("inflated persona"). The focus here is on the external world of job, family, children, etc., so extraverts have an edge.

` "Just as the sun going up spreads light over a big area, then decreases to only light itself on the horizon, so it is with men." ... "Whoever carries over into the afternoon the law of the morning... must pay for doing so with damage to his or her soul".


III. Middle Life (40 --> 60-65): Death is youth (bar scenes less attractive). Here the process of the integration of the shadow dominates. This is the Fall of life. Introverts have a slight edge here because of the heavy introspection.

A. Major changes in physical and psychological life.

1. Physical Change: Physical abilities increase until around the age of 26 or so and then start to decline. Around 40 is when you really start to notice the aches and pains of aging. Can't do a lot of things you were able to do in the past.

2. Psychological Change: The first half of life was concerned with enlargening consciousness (with new knowledge, skills, etc.). In the second half you start to look inward to questions of meaning and spirituality. Here the kids are away, you have fewer social demands, and so you have time to reflect. This gives introverts a slight edge. Some of the changes in focus for the first vs the second half of life are presented below.


1st Half: 2nd Half: ego self conscious personality unconscious personality outer events inner events achievements integration doing being B. Midlife Crisis: This comes when you are bored with material success and begin the process of making sense of your life. There are at least three possible solutions:

1. Denial - don't face the crisis. You might die at 40 although you won't be buried until 90.

2. Start all over - suddenly you discover the unconscious and proclaim that all your life up to now has been a lie. You sell your business and become an artist or a missionary. Sometimes OK, sometimes not.

3. Start the process of integrating the old life and the new life into an unified concept of self. This is when men start of soften up (retire, become gardeners) and women start to toughen up (start a business, go into politics).

IV. Old Age (60-65 --> Death). Death is middle age (with all its responsibilities). Here wisdom (self & spirituality) dominates. This is the winter of life when you prepare for the next great mystery.

A. Cultivate the archetype of the "Wise Old Man", but don't forget the archetype of the fool. What is so wrong with being able to just enjoy the presence of your grandchildren - even if you have trouble with their names. Here, you can become less involved with the details.

B. Favorite quote: "To the psychotherapist, an old man who cannot bid farewell to life appears as feeble and sickly as the young man who is afraid to embrace it".



Periphery of Personality



Jung discusses personality types comprised of combinations of the attitudes and functions. The most popular instrument used to measure Jung's types is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI measures 16 types, although Jung only specifically discussed 8 types. I will cover the 8 types discussed by Jung and leave a detailed explanation of the MBTI for graduate level classes. The MBTI is a very popular test. In 1986 it was given to 1.5 million people. Generally, it shows the following breakdowns:


Extravert - 70% Introvert - 30%

Sense - 70% Intuition - 30%

Think - 60% Feel - 40% - for males

Think - 40% Feel - 60% - for females



In discussing each of the 8 types, remember that no type is any "better" or "ideal" than any of the others. Also, remember that each type has it's opposite type which is called the "inferior function". The inferior function is undeveloped and unskilled. It can cause problems if one gets too out of balance.



I. Introversive-Rational Types

A. Introvert-Think - Theory builders

1. Key words: theoretical, intellectual, impractical

2. Absorbed with inner thoughts & ideas

3. Philosophers, theoretical scientists

4. Inferior function: extravert-feel - beware of romantic relationships ("Blue Angel")

B. Introvert-Feel - Seekers & keepers of human values

1. Key words: silent, stable, loyal

2. Outwardly cool, but have deep emotions. "Still waters run deep"; also "beware the wrath of a patient man"

3. Movie critics, editorial writers, artists

4. Inferior function: extrovert-think - beware of quick actions.


II. Extraversive-Rational Types

A. Extravert-Think - Commanders, organizers (Freud, Darwin here)

1. Key words: objective, orderly, factual

2. Values objective analysis, decisiveness, and closure. Excellent planners; view world as an intellectual pursuit.

3. Research scientist, accountant, business executive

4. Inferior function: introvert-feel - beware of acting on emotional outbursts or fear.

B. Extravert-Feel - Harmonizers (many women here)

1. Key words: intense, sociable, gregarious

2. Attuned to social needs of others, loyal to friends and organizations.

3. Politicians, salesmen, preachers, charismatic leaders.

4. Inferior function: introvert-think - beware when these people attempt detailed analysis. Often these are very successful people who always feel stupid (and give lots of money to universities).


III. Introversive-Irrational Types

A. Introvert-Sense - Super-dependable

1. Key words: passive, calm, artistic

2. Have precise, rich internal perceptions and memory for detail.

3. Artists, writers, classical musicians

4. Inferior function: extravert-intuit - beware when they start impulsive predictions of the future.

B. Introvert-Intuit - Visionary/Prophet (Jung here)

1. Key words: mystic, dreamer, unique

2. Live in an intense inner world and are attuned to unconscious images. Often have trouble communicating their visions.

3. Prophets, mystics, spiritual leaders

4. Inferior function: extravert-sense - beware when these people try to excessively focus on external data. Don't hire them to do your taxes.


IV. Extraversive-Irrational Types

A. Extravert-Sense - Supreme realist (B.F. Skinner), "America's Pattern"

1. Key words: realistic, sensual, practical

2. Have an accurate awareness of the environment and are gifted problem solvers.

3. Astronauts ("right stuff"), engineers, cops, cooks

4. Inferior function: introvert-intuit - beware when they have grandiose visions (join cults).


B. Extravert-Intuit - Innovators, "Most exciting" pattern

1. Key words: visionary, changeable, creative

2. Focus on future visions; see new options and possibilities.

3. Inventors and entrepreneurs are often good at starting businesses, but lousy at running them.

4. Inferior function: Introvert-sense - beware when they withdraw and start to focus on their bodies.



Other "Goodies" on Jung




I. Classification of Therapies: Different types of therapies emphasize different skills and functions. For instance, extraverts might be attracted to group therapy, while introverts might prefer individual therapy. James Witzig has proposed the following classification of therapies based on the primary function upon which the therapy will focus.

A. Thinking Function

1. Emphasis is on informational/cognitive skills.

2. Psychoanalysis, Transactional Analysis (TA), Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET)

B. Intuition Function

1. Emphasis is on symbolic/intuitive skills

2. Jungian Analysis, Transcendental Meditation

C. Sense Function

1. Emphasis is on Sensory/experiential skills

2. Gestalt psychotherapy, behavior modification

D. Feeling Function

1. Emphasis is on confrontational/conative skills

2. Encounter groups, psychodrama, client-centered therapy.


II. Chess Players

A. Chess players have always been a little nutty. After winning a world championship, many went into hiding and were never heard from again. As a matter of fact, the World Chess Federation finally had to establish a rule that the world title had to be defended every three years to keep the championship alive. The last famous tournament was in 1972 when American Bobby Fisher beat Russian Boris Spassky. Fisher than became a recluse and in 1975 lost his title by default.

B. A research project reported in 1984 Psychology Today gave the MBTI to 140 United States Chess Federation Players. They found that introverts, and particularly, introvert-intuitive were overrepresented among master-level players.




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