The Jung Lexicon
A Primer of Terms &
Copyright ©1991 Daryl Sharp
The Jung Lexicon has been made
available through the generosity of its author, Jungian
analyst, Daryl Sharp, publisher and general editor of Inner City Books.
The clothbound Jung Lexicon can be purchased with a credit card
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C. G. Jung died in 1961, without ever having presented a systematic
summary of his psychology. For the past thirty years his ideas have been
explained, explored and amplified by thousands of others, with varying
Jung Lexicon takes the reader to the source. It was
designed for those seeking an understanding of relevant terms and concepts
as they were used by Jung himself. There are choice extracts from Jung's
Collected Works, but no references to other writers.
Lexicon is not a critique or a defence of Jung's thoughts, but a guide
to its richness and an illustration of the broad scope and
interrelationship of his interests.
Informed by a close reading of
Jung's major writings, Jung Lexicon contains a comprehensive
overview of the basic principles of Jungian psychology. The implications
and practical application of Jung's ideas are well covered by other
volumes in this series.
Notes on Usage
A word that appears in bold type under a main heading directs
the reader to another entry. Activate the FIND function on your browser to
search for particular terms, themes, topics, etc. For example, with the
FIND dialogue box open, type in "dream" or "midlife" or "relationship" and
see what comes up. Or you can scroll through the Lexicon from top to
bottom and find unexpected gems.
The designation CW in the citations refers to the twenty volumes of
Jung's Collected Works. The title of the individual volumes are
given in the Bibliography.
Abaissement du niveau mental. A lowering of the
level of consciousness, a mental and emotional condition experienced as
"loss of soul." (See also depression.)
It is a slackening of the tensity of consciousness, which might be
compared to a low barometric reading, presaging bad weather. The tonus
has given way, and this is felt subjectively as listlessness,
moroseness, and depression. One no longer has any wish or courage to
face the tasks of the day. One feels like lead, because no part of one's
body seems willing to move, and this is due to the fact that one no
longer has any disposable energy. . . . The listlessness and paralysis
of will can go so far that the whole personality falls apart, so to
speak, and consciousness loses its unity . . . .
niveau mental can be the result of physical and mental fatigue,
bodily illness, violent emotions, and shock, of which the last has a
particularly deleterious effect on one's self-assurance. The
abaissement always has a restrictive influence on the personality
as a whole. It reduces one's self-confidence and the spirit of
enterprise, and, as a result of increasing egocentricity, narrows the
mental horizon ["Concerning Rebirth," CW 9i, pars.
Abreaction. A method of becoming conscious of repressed
emotional reactions through the retelling and reliving of a traumatic
experience. (See also cathartic method.)
After some initial
interest in "trauma theory," Jung abandoned abreaction (together with
suggestion) as an effective tool in the therapy of neurosis.
I soon discovered that, though traumata of clearly aetiological
significance were occasionally present, the majority of them appeared
very improbable. Many traumata were so unimportant, even so normal, that
they could be regarded at most as a pretext for the neurosis. But what
especially aroused my criticism was the fact that not a few traumata
were simply inventions of fantasy and had never happened at all. . . . I
could no longer imagine that repeated experiences of a fantastically
exaggerated or entirely fictitious trauma had a different therapeutic
value from a suggestion procedure.[ "Some Crucial Points
in Psychoanalysis," CW 4, par. 582.]
The belief, the self-confidence, perhaps also the devotion with which
the analyst does his work, are far more important to the patient
(imponderabilia though they may be), than the rehearsing of old
traumata.[Ibid., par. 584.]
Abstraction. A form of mental activity by which a conscious
content is freed from its association with irrelevant elements, similar to
the process of differentiation. (Compare empathy.)
Abstraction is an activity pertaining to the psychological functions
in general. There is an abstract thinking, just as there is abstract
feeling, sensation, and intuition. Abstract thinking singles out the
rational, logical qualities of a given content from its intellectually
irrelevant components. Abstract feeling does the same with a content
characterized by its feeling-values . . . . Abstract sensation would be
aesthetic as opposed to sensuous sensation, and abstract intuition would
be symbolic as opposed to fantastic intuition.["Definitions," CW 6, par. 678.]
Jung related abstraction to introversion (analogous to empathy and
I visualize the process of abstraction as a withdrawal of libido from
the object, as a backflow of value from the object into a subjective,
abstract content. For me, therefore, abstraction amounts to an energic
devaluation of the object. In other words, abstraction is an
introverting movement of libido.[Ibid., par.
To the extent that its purpose is to break the object's hold on the
subject, abstraction is an attempt to rise above the primitive state of
Active imagination. A method of assimilating unconscious
contents (dreams, fantasies, etc.) through some form of self-expression.
(See also transcendent function.)
The object of active
imagination is to give a voice to sides of the personality (particularly
the anima/animus and the shadow) that are normally not heard, thereby
establishing a line of communication between consciousness and the
unconscious. Even when the end products-drawing, painting, writing,
sculpture, dance, music, etc.-are not interpreted, something goes on
between creator and creation that contributes to a transformation of
The first stage of active imagination is like
dreaming with open eyes. It can take place spontaneously or be
In the latter case you choose a dream, or some other fantasy-image,
and concentrate on it by simply catching hold of it and looking at it.
You can also use a bad mood as a starting-point, and then try to find
out what sort of fantasy-image it will produce, or what image expresses
this mood. You then fix this image in the mind by concentrating your
attention. Usually it will alter, as the mere fact of contemplating it
animates it. The alterations must be carefully noted down all the time,
for they reflect the psychic processes in the unconscious background,
which appear in the form of images consisting of conscious memory
material. In this way conscious and unconscious are united, just as a
waterfall connects above and below.[The Conjunction," CW
14, par. 706.]
The second stage, beyond simply observing the images, involves a
conscious participation in them, the honest evaluation of what they mean
about oneself, and a morally and intellectually binding commitment to act
on the insights. This is a transition from a merely perceptive or
aesthetic attitude to one of judgment.
Although, to a certain extent, he looks on from outside, impartially,
he is also an acting and suffering figure in the drama of the psyche.
This recognition is absolutely necessary and marks an important advance.
So long as he simply looks at the pictures he is like the foolish
Parsifal, who forgot to ask the vital question because he was not aware
of his own participation in the action.[An allusion to the medieval
Grail legend. The question Parsifal failed to ask was, "Whom does the
Grail serve?" ]. . . But if you recognize your own involvement you
yourself must enter into the process with your personal reactions, just
as if you were one of the fantasy figures, or rather, as if the drama
being enacted before your eyes were real.["The
Conjunction," CW 14, par. 753.]
The judging attitude implies a voluntary involvement in those
fantasy-processes which compensate the individual and-in particular-the
collective situation of consciousness. The avowed purpose of this
involvement is to integrate the statements of the unconscious, to
assimilate their compensatory content, and thereby produce a whole
meaning which alone makes life worth living and, for not a few people,
possible at all. [ Ibid., par. 756.]
Adaptation. The process of coming to terms with the external
world, on the one hand, and with one's own unique psychological
characteristics on the other. (See also neurosis.)
Before [individuation] can be taken as a goal, the educational aim of
adaptation to the necessary minimum of collective norms must first be
attained. If a plant is to unfold its specific nature to the full, it
must first be able to grow in the soil in which it is planted.["Definitions," CW 6, par. 761.]
The constant flow of life again and again demands fresh adaptation.
Adaptation is never achieved once and for all.["The
Transcendent Function," CW 8, par. 143.]
Man is not a machine in the sense that he can consistently maintain
the same output of work. He can meet the demands of outer necessity in
an ideal way only if he is also adapted to his own inner world, that is,
if he is in harmony with himself. Conversely, he can only adapt to his
inner world and achieve harmony with himself when he is adapted to the
environmental conditions.["On Psychic Energy," ibid., par.
The transition from child to adult initially entails an increasing
adaptation to the outer world. When the libido meets an obstacle to
progression, there is an accumulation of energy that normally gives rise
to increased efforts to overcome the obstacle. But if the obstacle proves
insurmountable, the stored-up energy regresses to an earlier mode of
adaptation. This in turn activates infantile fantasies and wishes, and
necessitates the need to adapt to the inner world.
The best examples of such regressions are found in hysterical cases
where a disappointment in love or marriage has precipitated a neurosis.
There we find those well-known digestive disorders, loss of appetite,
dyspeptic symptoms of all sorts, etc. . . . [typically accompanied by] a
regressive revival of reminiscences from the distant past. We then find
a reactivation of the parental imagos, of the Oedipus complex. Here the
events of early infancy-never before important-suddenly become so. They
have been regressively reactivated. Remove the obstacle from the path of
life and this whole system of infantile fantasies at once breaks down
and becomes as inactive and ineffective as before.["Psychoanalysis and Neurosis," CW4, par.
In his model of typology, Jung described two substantially different
modes of adaptation, introversion and extraversion. He also link-ed
failures in adaptation to the outbreak of neurosis.
The psychological trouble in neurosis, and the neurosis itself, can
be formulated as an act of adaptation that has failed.[ Ibid., par. 574 (italics in original).]
Affect. Emotional reactions marked by physical symptoms and
disturbances in thinking. (See also complex and feeling.)
Affect is invariably a sign that a complex has been activated.
Affects occur usually where adaptation is weakest, and at the same
time they reveal the reason for its weakness, namely a certain degree of
inferiority and the existence of a lower level of personality. On this
lower level with its uncontrolled or scarcely controlled emotions one .
. . [is] singularly incapable of moral judgment.[The
Shadow," Aion, CW 9ii, par. 15.]
Ambivalence. A state of mind where every attitude or anticipated
course of action is counterbalanced by its opposite. (See also
conflict and opposites.)
Ambivalence is associated in
general with the influence of unconscious complexes, and in particular
with the psychological functions when they have not been
Amplification. A method of association based on the comparative
study of mythology, religion and fairy tales, used in the interpretation
of images in dreams and drawings.
Analysis, Jungian. A form of therapy specializing in neurosis,
aimed at bringing unconscious contents to consciousness; also called
analytic therapy, based on the school of thought developed by C.G. Jung
called analytical (or complex) psychology.
[Analysis] is only a means for removing the stones from the path of
development, and not a method . . . of putting things into the patient
that were not there before. It is better to renounce any attempt to give
direction, and simply try to throw into relief everything that the
analysis brings to light, so that the patient can see it clearly and be
able to draw suitable conclusions. Anything he has not acquired himself
he will not believe in the long run, and what he takes over from
authority merely keeps him infantile. He should rather be put in a
position to take his own life in hand. The art of analysis lies in
following the patient on all his erring ways and so gathering his
strayed sheep together.[Some Crucial Points in
Psychoanalysis," CW 4, par. 643.]
There is a widespread prejudice that analysis is something like a
"cure," to which one submits for a time and is then discharged healed.
That is a layman's error left over from the early days of
psychoanalysis. Analytical treatment could be described as a
readjustment of psychological attitude achieved with the help of the
doctor. . . . [But] there is no change that is unconditionally valid
over a long period of time.[The Transcendent Function," CW
8, par. 142.]
Jung initially made a distinction between analysis of the unconscious
[ Jung deliberately used this expression instead of "psychoanalysis":
"I wish to leave that term entirely to the Freudians. What they understand
by psychoanalysis is no mere technique, but a method which is dogmatically
bound up with and based upon Freud's sexual theory. When Freud publicly
declared that psychoanalysis and his sexual theory were indissolubly
wedded, I was obliged to strike out on a different path." ("Analytical Psychology and Education," CW 17, par.
180)] and anamnestic analysis. The latter is concerned
primarily with contents of consciousness already available or easily
brought to mind, and with supporting or strengthening the ego. The
unconscious is a factor only indirectly.
It consists in a careful anamnesis or reconstruction of the
historical development of the neurosis. The material elicited in this
way is a more or less coherent sequence of facts told to the doctor by
the patient, so far as he can remember them. He naturally omits many
details which either seem unimportant to him or which he has forgotten.
The experienced analyst who knows the usual course of neurotic
development will put questions which help the patient to fill in some of
the gaps. Very often this procedure by itself is of great therapeutic
value, as it enables the patient to understand the chief factors of his
neurosis and may eventually bring him to a decisive change of
attitude.["Analytical Psychology and Education," ibid.,
In addition to the favourable effect produced by the realization of
previously unconscious connections, it is usual for the doctor to give
some good advice, or encouragement, or even a reproof.[
Ibid., par. 178.]
Analysis of the unconscious begins when conscious material has been
exhausted and there is still no satisfactory resolution of the neurosis;
it requires an ego strong enough to deal directly with unconscious
material, particularly dreams. Jung believed that analysis in this sense
was particularly suited to psychological problems in the second half of
life, but even then he expressed caution.
Consistent support of the conscious attitude has in itself a high
therapeutic value and not infrequently serves to bring about
satisfactory results. It would be a dangerous prejudice to imagine that
analysis of the unconscious is the one and only panacea which should
therefore be employed in every case. It is rather like a surgical
operation and we should only resort to the knife when other methods have
failed. So long as it does not obtrude itself the unconscious is best
left alone.[The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16,
In his analytic work, Jung shunned diagnosis and prognosis. He used no
systematic technique or method. His aim was to approach each case with a
minimum of prior assumptions, although he acknowledged that the
personality and psychological disposition of the analyst made complete
The ideal would naturally be to have no assumptions at all. But this
is impossible even if one exercises the most rigorous self-criticism,
for one is oneself the biggest of all one's assumptions, and the one
with the gravest consequences. Try as we may to have no assumptions and
to use no ready-made methods, the assumption that I myself am will
determine my method: as I am, so will I proceed.
["Appendix," ibid., par.543.]
Jung also insisted that those training to be analysts must have a
thorough personal analysis.
We have learned to place in the foreground the personality of the
doctor himself as a curative or harmful factor; . . . what is now
demanded is his own transformation-the self-education of the educator. .
. . The doctor can no longer evade his own difficulty by treating the
difficulties of others: the man who suffers from a running abscess is
not fit to perform a surgical operation.["Problems of
Modern Psychotherapy," ibid., par. 172.]
Anima. The inner feminine side of a man. (See also
animus, Eros, Logos and soul-image.)
anima is both a personal complex and an archetypal image of woman in the
male psyche. It is an unconscious factor incarnated anew in every male
child, and is responsible for the mechanism of projection. Initially
identified with the personal mother, the anima is later experienced not
only in other women but as a pervasive influence in a man's life.
The anima is the archetype of life itself.["Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious," CW 9i, par.
There is [in man] an imago not only of the mother but of the
daughter, the sister, the beloved, the heavenly goddess, and the
chthonic Baubo. Every mother and every beloved is forced to become the
carrier and embodiment of this omnipresent and ageless image, which
corresponds to the deepest reality in a man. It belongs to him, this
perilous image of Woman; she stands for the loyalty which in the
interests of life he must sometimes forego; she is the much needed
compensation for the risks, struggles, sacrifices that all end in
disappointment; she is the solace for all the bitterness of life. And,
at the same time, she is the great illusionist, the seductress, who
draws him into life with her Maya-and not only into life's reasonable
and useful aspects, but into its frightful paradoxes and ambivalences
where good and evil, success and ruin, hope and despair, counterbalance
one another. Because she is his greatest danger she demands from a man
his greatest, and if he has it in him she will receive it.[The Syzygy: Anima and Animus," CW 9ii, par.
The anima is personified in dreams by images of women ranging from
seductress to spiritual guide. It is associated with the eros principle,
hence a man's anima development is reflected in how he relates to women.
Within his own psyche, the anima functions as his soul, influencing his
ideas, attitudes and emotions.
The anima is not the soul in the dogmatic sense, not an anima
rationalis, which is a philosophical conception, but a natural
archetype that satisfactorily sums up all the statements of the
unconscious, of the primitive mind, of the history of language and
religion. . . . It is always the a priori element in [a man's]
moods, reactions, impulses, and whatever else is spontaneous in psychic
life.["Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious," CW 9i,
The anima . . . . intensifies, exaggerates, falsifies, and
mythologizes all emotional relations with his work and with other people
of both sexes. The resultant fantasies and entanglements are all her
doing. When the anima is strongly constellated, she softens the man's
character and makes him touchy, irritable, moody, jealous, vain, and
unadjusted.["Concerning the Archetypes and the Anima Concept,"[ ibid., par. 144.]
As an inner personality, the anima is complementary to the persona and
stands in a compensatory relationship to it.
The persona, the ideal picture of a man as he should be, is inwardly
compensated by feminine weakness, and as the individual outwardly plays
the strong man, so he becomes inwardly a woman, i.e., the anima, for it
is the anima that reacts to the persona. But because the inner world is
dark and invisible . . . and because a man is all the less capable of
conceiving his weaknesses the more he is identified with the persona,
the persona's counterpart, the anima, remains completely in the dark and
is at once projected, so that our hero comes under the heel of his
wife's slipper.["Anima and Animus," CW 7, par.
Hence the character of the anima can generally be deduced from that of
the persona; all those qualities absent from the outer attitude will be
found in the inner.
The tyrant tormented by bad dreams, gloomy forebodings, and inner
fears is a typical figure. Outwardly ruthless, harsh, and
unapproachable, he jumps inwardly at every shadow, is at the mercy of
every mood, as though he were the feeblest and most impressionable of
men. Thus his anima contains all those fallible human qualities his
persona lacks. If the persona is intellectual, the anima will certainly
be sentimental.["Definitions," CW 6, par.
Similarly, where a man identifies with the persona, he is in effect
possessed by the anima, with attendant symptoms.
Identity with the persona automatically leads to an unconscious
identity with the anima because, when the ego is not differentiated from
the persona, it can have no conscious relation to the unconscious
processes. Consequently it is these processes, it is identical with
them. Anyone who is himself his outward role will infallibly succumb to
the inner processes; he will either frustrate his outward role by
absolute inner necessity or else reduce it to absurdity, by a process of
enantiodromia. He can no longer keep to his individual way, and his life
runs into one deadlock after another. Moreover, the anima is inevitably
projected upon a real object, with which he gets into a relation of
almost total dependence.[Ibid., par.
Jung distinguished four broad stages of the anima, analogous to levels
of the Eros cult described in the late classical period. He personified
them as Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia.["The Psychology of the
Transference," CW 16, par. 361. ]
In the first stage, Eve,
the anima is indistinguishable from the personal mother. The man cannot
function well without a close tie to a woman. In the second stage,
personified in the historical figure of Helen of Troy, the anima is a
collective and ideal sexual image ("All is dross that is not
Helen"-Marlowe). The third stage, Mary, manifests in religious feelings
and a capacity for lasting relationships. In the fourth stage, as Sophia
(called Wisdom in the Bible), a man's anima functions as a guide to the
inner life, mediating to consciousness the contents of the unconscious.
She cooperates in the search for meaning and is the creative muse in an
Ideally, a man's anima proceeds naturally through
these stages as he grows older. In fact, as an archetypal life force, the
anima manifests in whatever shape or form is necessary to compensate the
dominant conscious attitude.
So long as the anima is unconscious,
everything she stands for is projected. Most commonly, because of the
initially close tie between the anima and the protective mother-imago,
this projection falls on the partner, with predictable results.
[A man's] ideal of marriage is so arranged that his wife has to take
over the magical role of the mother. Under the cloak of the ideally
exclusive marriage he is really seeking his mother's protection, and
thus he plays into the hands of his wife's possessive instincts. His
fear of the dark incalculable power of the unconscious gives his wife an
illegitimate authority over him, and forges such a dangerously close
union that the marriage is permanently on the brink of explosion from
internal tension.["Anima and Animus," CW 7, par.
No matter where a man is in terms of psychological development, he is
always prone to see aspects of his anima, his soul, in an actual woman.
The same is true of the animus. Their personal aspects may be integrated
and their significance understood, but their essential nature cannot be
Though the effects of anima and animus can be made conscious, they
themselves are factors transcending consciousness and beyond the reach
of perception and volition. Hence they remain autonomous despite the
integration of their contents, and for this reason they should be borne
constantly in mind.[The Syzygy: Anima and Animus," CW 9ii,
The psychological priority in the first half of life is for a man to
free himself from the anima fascination of the mother. In later life, the
lack of a conscious relationship with the anima is attended by symptoms
characteristic of "loss of soul."
Younger people . . . can bear even the total loss of the anima
without injury. The important thing at this stage is for a man to be a
man. . . . After the middle of life, however, permanent loss of the
anima means a diminution of vitality, of flexibility, and of human
kindness. The result, as a rule, is premature rigidity, crustiness,
stereotypy, fanatical one-sidedness, obstinacy, pedantry, or else
resignation, weariness, sloppiness, irresponsibility, and finally a
childish ramollissement [petulance] with a tendency to
alcohol.["Concerning the Archetypes and the Anima
Concept," CW 9i, par. 146f.]
One way for a man to become familiar with the nature of his anima is
through the method of active imagination. This is done by personifying her
as an autonomous personality, asking her questions and attending to the
I mean this as an actual technique. . . . The art of it consists only
in allowing our invisible partner to make herself heard, in putting the
mechanism of expression momentarily at her disposal, without being
overcome by the distaste one naturally feels at playing such an
apparently ludicrous game with oneself, or by doubts as to the
genuineness of the voice of one's interlocutor.["Anima and
Animus," CW 7, pars. 323f.]
Jung suggested that if the encounter with the shadow is the
"apprentice-piece" in a man's development, then coming to terms with the
anima is the "master-piece."["Archetypes of the Collective
Unconscious," CW 9i, par. 61.] The goal is her transformation from
a troublesome adversary into a function of relationship between
consciousness and the unconscious. Jung called this "the conquest of the
anima as an autonomous complex."
With the attainment of this goal it becomes possible to disengage the
ego from all its entanglements with collectivity and the collective
unconscious. Through this process the anima forfeits the daemonic power
of an autonomous complex; she can no longer exercise the power of
possession, since she is depotentiated. She is no longer the guardian of
treasures unknown; no longer Kundry, daemonic Messenger of the Grail,
half divine and half animal; no longer is the soul to be called
"Mistress," but a psychological function of an intuitive nature, akin to
what the primitives mean when they say, "He has gone into the forest to
talk with the spirits" or "My snake spoke with me" or, in the
mythological language of infancy, "A little bird told me."[The Mana-Personality," CW 7, par. 374.]
Animus. The inner masculine side of a woman. (See also
anima, Eros, Logos and soul-image.)
the anima in a man, the animus is both a personal complex and an
Woman is compensated by a masculine element and therefore her
unconscious has, so to speak, a masculine imprint. This results in a
considerable psychological difference between men and women, and
accordingly I have called the projection-making factor in women the
animus, which means mind or spirit. The animus corresponds to the
paternal Logos just as the anima corresponds to the maternal Eros.[The Syzygy: Anima and Animus," CW 9ii, pars. 28f.]
The animus is the deposit, as it were, of all woman's ancestral
experiences of man-and not only that, he is also a creative and
procreative being, not in the sense of masculine creativity, but in the
sense that he brings forth something we might call . . . the spermatic
word.["Anima and Animus," CW 7, par.
Whereas the anima in a man functions as his soul, a woman's animus is
more like an unconscious mind.[At times Jung also referred to the
animus as a woman's soul. See soul and soul-image.] It
manifests negatively in fixed ideas, collective opinions and unconscious,
a priori assumptions that lay claim to absolute truth. In a woman
who is identified with the animus (called animus-possession), Eros
generally takes second place to Logos.
A woman possessed by the animus is always in danger of losing her
femininity.[Anima and Animus," CW 7, par. 337.]
No matter how friendly and obliging a woman's Eros may be, no logic
on earth can shake her if she is ridden by the animus. . . . [A man] is
unaware that this highly dramatic situation would instantly come to a
banal and unexciting end if he were to quit the field and let a second
woman carry on the battle (his wife, for instance, if she herself is not
the fiery war horse). This sound idea seldom or never occurs to him,
because no man can converse with an animus for five minutes without
becoming the victim of his own anima.[The Syzygy: Anima
and Animus," CW 9ii, par. 29.]
The animus becomes a helpful psychological factor when a woman can tell
the difference between the ideas generated by this autonomous complex and
what she herself really thinks.
Like the anima, the animus too has a positive aspect. Through the
figure of the father he expresses not only conventional opinion
but-equally-what we call "spirit," philosophical or religious ideas in
particular, or rather the attitude resulting from them. Thus the animus
is a psychopomp, a mediator between the conscious and the unconscious
and a personification of the latter.[Ibid., par.
Jung described four stages of animus development in a woman. He first
appears in dreams and fantasy as the embodiment of physical power, an
athlete, muscle man or thug. In the second stage, the animus provides her
with initiative and the capacity for planned action. He is behind a
woman's desire for independence and a career of her own. In the next
stage, the animus is the "word," often personified in dreams as a
professor or clergyman. In the fourth stage, the animus is the incarnation
of spiritual meaning. On this highest level, like the anima as Sophia, the
animus mediates between a woman's conscious mind and the unconscious. In
mythology this aspect of the animus appears as Hermes, messenger of the
gods; in dreams he is a helpful guide.
Any of these aspects of the
animus can be projected onto a man. As with the projected anima, this can
lead to unrealistic expectations and acrimony in relationships.
Like the anima, the animus is a jealous lover. He is adept at
putting, in place of the real man, an opinion about him, the exceedingly
disputable grounds for which are never submitted to criticism. Animus
opinions are invariably collective, and they override individuals and
individual judgments in exactly the same way as the anima thrusts her
emotional anticipations and projections between man and wife.["Anima and Animus," CW 7, par. 334.]
The existence of the contrasexual complexes means that in any
relationship between a man and a woman there are at least four
personalities involved. The possible lines of communication are shown by
the arrows in the diagram.[Adapted from "The Psychology of
the Transference," CW 16, par. 422.]
While a man's task in assimilating the effects of the anima involves
discovering his true feelings, a woman becomes familiar with the nature of
the animus by constantly questioning her ideas and opinions.
The technique of coming to terms with the animus is the same in
principle as in the case of the anima; only here the woman must learn to
criticize and hold her opinions at a distance; not in order to repress
them, but, by investigating their origins, to penetrate more deeply into
the background, where she will then discover the primordial images, just
as the man does in his dealings with the anima.[Anima and
Animus," CW 7, par. 336.]
Anthropos. Original or primordial man, an archetypal image of
wholeness in alchemy, religion and Gnostic philosophy.
There is in the unconscious an already existing wholeness, the "homo
totus" of the Western and the Chên-yên (true man) of Chinese alchemy,
the round primordial being who represents the greater man within, the
Anthropos, who is akin to God.[The Personification of the
Opposites," CW 14, par. 152.]
Apotropaic. Descriptive of "magical thinking," based on the
desire to depotentiate the influence of an object or person. Apotropaic
actions are characteristic of introversion as a mode of psychological
I have seen an introverted child who made his first attempts to walk
only after he had learned the names of all the objects in the room he
might touch.[Psychological Types," CW 6, par.
Apperception. A psychic process by which a new conscious content
is articulated with similar, already existing contents in such a way that
it is understood. (Compare assimilation.)
Sense-perceptions tell us that something is. But they do not tell us
what it is. This is told us not by the process of perception but by the
process of apperception, and this has a highly complex structure. Not
that sense-perception is anything simple; only, its complex nature is
not so much psychic as physiological. The complexity of apperception, on
the other hand, is psychic. [The Structure of the Psyche,"
CW 8, par. 288.]
Jung distinguishes active from passive apperception. In
active apperception, the ego grabs hold of something new and comes to
grips with it. In passive apperception, the new content forces itself upon
consciousness, either from outside (through the senses) or from within
(the unconscious). Apperception may also be either directed or
In the former case we speak of "attention," in the latter case of
"fantasy" or "dreaming." The directed processes are rational, the
undirected irrational. [Ibid., par.
Archaic. Primal or original. (See also participation
Every civilized human being, however high his conscious development,
is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche.[Archaic Man," CW 10, par. 105]
In anthropology, the term archaic is generally descriptive of primitive
psychology. Jung used it when referring to thoughts, fantasies and
feelings that are not consciously differentiated.
Archaism attaches primarily to the fantasies of the unconscious,
i.e., to the products of unconscious fantasy activity which reach
consciousness. An image has an archaic quality when it possesses
unmistakable mythological parallels. Archaic, too, are the
associations-by-analogy of unconscious fantasy, and so is their
symbolism. The relation of identity with an object, or participation
mystique, is likewise archaic. Concretism of thought and feeling is
archaic; also compulsion and inability to control oneself (ecstatic or
trance state, possession, etc.). Fusion of the psychological functions,
of thinking with feeling, feeling with sensation, feeling with
intuition, and so on, is archaic, as is also the fusion of part of a
function with its counterpart.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
Archetype. Primordial, structural elements of the human psyche.
(See also archetypal image and instinct.)
Archetypes are systems of readiness for action, and at the same time
images and emotions. They are inherited with the brain structure-indeed
they are its psychic aspect. They represent, on the one hand, a very
strong instinctive conservatism, while on the other hand they are the
most effective means conceivable of instinctive adaptation. They are
thus, essentially, the chthonic portion of the psyche . . . that portion
through which the psyche is attached to nature.["Mind and
Earth," CW 10, par. 53.]
It is not . . . a question of inherited ideas but of inherited
possibilities of ideas. Nor are they individual acquisitions but, in the
main, common to all, as can be seen from [their] universal
occurrence.["Concerning the Archetypes and the Anima
Concept," CW 9i, par. 136.]
Archetypes are irrepresentable in themselves but their effects are
discernible in archetypal images and motifs.
Archetypes . . . present themselves as ideas and images, like
everything else that becomes a content of consciousness.[On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par. 435.]
Archetypes are, by definition, factors and motifs that arrange the
psychic elements into certain images, characterized as archetypal, but
in such a way that they can be recognized only from the effects they
produce.["A Psychological Approach to the Trinity," CW 11,
par. 222, note 2.]
Jung also described archetypes as "instinctual images," the forms which
the instincts assume. He illustrated this using the simile of the
The dynamism of instinct is lodged as it were in the infra-red part
of the spectrum, whereas the instinctual image lies in the ultra-violet
part. . . . The realization and assimilation of instinct never take
place at the red end, i.e., by absorption into the instinctual sphere,
but only through integration of the image which signifies and at the
same time evokes the instinct, although in a form quite different from
the one we meet on the biological level.["On the Nature of
the Psyche," CW 8, par. 414.]
Psychologically . . . the archetype as an image of instinct is a
spiritual goal toward which the whole nature of man strives; it is the
sea to which all rivers wend their way, the prize which the hero wrests
from the fight with the dragon.[Ibid., par.
Archetypes manifest both on a personal level, through complexes, and
collectively, as characteristics of whole cultures. Jung believed it was
the task of each age to understand anew their content and their
We can never legitimately cut loose from our archetypal foundations
unless we are prepared to pay the price of a neurosis, any more than we
can rid ourselves of our body and its organs without committing suicide.
If we cannot deny the archetypes or otherwise neutralize them, we are
confronted, at every new stage in the differentiation of consciousness
to which civilization attains, with the task of finding a new
interpretation appropriate to this stage, in order to connect the
life of the past that still exists in us with the life of the present,
which threatens to slip away from it.["The Psychology of
the Child Archetype," CW 9i, par. 267.]
Archetypal image. The form or representation of an
archetype in consciousness. (See also collective
[The archetype is] a dynamism which makes itself felt in the
numinosity and fascinating power of the archetypal image.["On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
Archetypal images, as universal patterns or motifs which come from the
collective unconscious, are the basic content of religions, mythologies,
legends and fairy tales.
An archetypal content expresses itself, first and foremost, in
metaphors. If such a content should speak of the sun and identify with
it the lion, the king, the hoard of gold guarded by the dragon, or the
power that makes for the life and health of man, it is neither the one
thing nor the other, but the unknown third thing that finds more or less
adequate expression in all these similes, yet-to the perpetual vexation
of the intellect-remains unknown and not to be fitted into a
formula.["The Psychology of the Child Archetype," CW 9i,
On a personal level, archetypal motifs are patterns of thought or
behavior that are common to humanity at all times and in all places.
For years I have been observing and investigating the products of the
unconscious in the widest sense of the word, namely dreams, fantasies,
visions, and delusions of the insane. I have not been able to avoid
recognizing certain regularities, that is, types. There are types
of situations and types of figures that repeat themselves
frequently and have a corresponding meaning. I therefore employ the term
"motif" to designate these repetitions. Thus there are not only typical
dreams but typical motifs in dreams. . . . [These] can be arranged under
a series of archetypes, the chief of them being . . . the shadow,
the wise old man, the child (including the child hero),
the mother ("Primordial Mother" and "Earth Mother") as a supraordinate
personality ("daemonic" because supraordinate), and her counterpart the
maiden, and lastly the anima in man and the animus
in woman.["The Psychological Aspects of the Kore," ibid.,
Assimilation. The process of integrating outer objects (persons,
things, ideas, values) and unconscious contents into consciousness.
Assimilation is the approximation of a new content of consciousness
to already constellated subjective material . . . . Fundament-ally, [it]
is a process of apperception, but is distinguished from apperception by
this element of approximation to the subjective material. . . . I use
the term assimilation . . . as the approximation of object to subject in
general, and with it I contrast dissimilation, as the
approximation of subject to object, and a consequent alienation of the
subject from himself in favour of the object, whether it be an external
object or a "psychological" object, for instance an idea.["Definitions," CW 6, pars. 685f.]
Association. A spontaneous flow of interconnected thoughts and
images around a specific idea, often determined by unconscious
connections. (See also Word Association Experiment.)
associations to images in dreams, together with amplification, are an
important initial step in their interpretation.
Attitude. The readiness of the psyche to act or react in a
certain way, based on an underlying psychological orientation. (See
also adaptation, type and typology.)
From a great number of existing or possible attitudes I have singled
out four; those, namely, that are primarily oriented by the four basic
psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensation, intuition. When
any of these attitudes is habitual, thus setting a definite stamp
on the character of an individual, I speak of a psychological type.
These function-types, which one can call the thinking, feeling,
sen-sation, and intuitive types, may be divided into two classes . . .
the rational and the irrational. . . . A further division into two
classes is permitted by the predominant trend of the movement of libido,
namely introversion and extraversion.[Ibid., par. 835.]
The whole psychology of an individual even in its most fundamental
features is oriented in accordance with his habitual attitude. . . .
[which is] a resultant of all the factors that exert a decisive
influence on the psyche, such as innate disposition, environmental
influences, experience of life, insights and convictions gained through
differentiation, collective views, etc. . . .At bottom, attitude is an
individual phenomenon that eludes scientific investigation. In actual
experience, however, certain typical attitudes can be distinguished . .
. . When a function habitually predominates, a typical attitude is
produced. . . . There is thus a typical thinking, feeling, sensation,
and intuitive attitude.[Ibid., pars.
Adaptation to one's environment requires an appropriate attitude. But
due to changing circumstances, no one attitude is permanently suitable.
When a particular attitude is no longer appropriate, whether to internal
or external reality, the stage is set for psychological difficulties
(e.g., an outbreak of neurosis).
For example, a feeling-attitude that seeks to fulfil the demands of
reality by means of empathy may easily encounter a situation that can
only be solved through thinking. In this case the feeling-attitude
breaks down and the progression of libido also ceases. The vital feeling
that was present before disappears, and in its place the psychic value
of certain conscious contents increases in an unpleasant way; subjective
contents and reactions press to the fore and the situation becomes full
of affect and ripe for explosions.["On Psychic Energy," CW
8, par. 61.]
The tension leads to conflict, the conflict leads to attempts at
mutual repression, and if one of the opposing forces is successfully
repressed a dissociation ensues, a splitting of the personality, or
disunion with oneself.[Ibid.]
Autonomous. Independent of the conscious will, associated in
general with the nature of the unconscious and in particular with
Auxiliary function. A helpful second or third function,
according to Jung's model of typology, that has a co-determining
influence on consciousness.
Absolute sovereignty always belongs, empirically, to one function
alone, and can belong only to one function, because the equally
independent intervention of another function would necessarily produce a
different orientation which, partially at least, would contradict the
first. But since it is a vital condition for the conscious process of
adaptation always to have clear and unambiguous aims, the presence of a
second function of equal power is naturally ruled out. This other
function, therefore, can have only a secondary importance. . . . Its
secondary importance is due to the fact that it is not, like the primary
function . . . an absolutely reliable and decisive factor, but comes
into play more as an auxiliary or complementary function.["General Description of the Types," CW 6, par.
The auxiliary function is always one whose nature differs from, but is
not antagonistic to, the superior or primary function: either of the
irrational functions (intuition and sensation) can be auxiliary to one of
the rational functions (thinking and feeling), and vice versa.
thinking and intuition can readily pair, as can thinking and sensation,
since the nature of intuition and sensation is not fundamentally opposed
to the thinking function. Similarly, sensation can be bolstered by an
auxiliary function of thinking or feeling, feeling is aided by sensation
or intuition, and intuition goes well with feeling or thinking.
The resulting combinations [see figure below] present the
familiar picture of, for instance, practical thinking allied with
sensation, speculative thinking forging ahead with intuition, artistic
intuition selecting and presenting its images with the help of
feeling-values, philosophical intuition systematizing its vision into
comprehensive thought by means of a powerful intellect, and so on.[Ibid., par. 669.]
Axiom of Maria. A precept in alchemy: "One becomes two, two
becomes three, and out of the third comes the one as the
Jung used the axiom of Maria as a metaphor for the whole
process of individuation. One is the original state of unconscious
wholeness; two signifies the conflict between opposites; three
points to a potential resolution; the third is the transcendent
function; and the one as the fourth is a transformed state of
consciousness, relatively whole and at peace.
Cathartic method. A confessional approach to treating neurosis,
involving the abreaction of emotions associated with a trauma.
Through confession I throw myself into the arms of humanity again,
freed at last from the burden of moral exile. The goal of the cathartic
method is full confession-not merely the intellectual recognition of the
facts with the head, but their confirmation by the heart and the actual
release of suppressed emotion.["Problems of Modern
Psychotherapy," CW 16, par. 134.]
Jung acknowledged the therapeutic value of catharsis, but early in his
career he recognized its limitations in the process of analysis.
The new psychology would have remained at the stage of confession had
catharsis proved itself a panacea. First and foremost, however, it is
not always possible to bring the patients close enough to the
unconscious for them to perceive the shadows. . . . They have quite
enough to confess already, they say; they do not have to turn to the
unconscious for that.[Ibid., par.
Causal. An approach to the interpretation of psychic phenomena
based on cause and effect. (See also final and
Child. Psychologically, an image of both the irrecoverable past
and an anticipation of future development. (See also incest.)
The "child" is . . . . both beginning and end, an initial and a
terminal creature. . . . the pre-conscious and the post-conscious
essence of man. His pre-conscious essence is the unconscious state of
earliest childhood; his post-conscious essence is an anticipation by
analogy of life after death. In this idea the all-embracing nature of
psychic wholeness is expressed.["The Psychology of the
Child Archetype," CW 9i, par. 299.]
Feelings of alienation or abandonment can constellate the child
archetype. The effects are two-fold: the "poor-me" syndrome characteristic
of the regressive longing for dependence, and, paradoxically, a desperate
desire to be free of the past-the positive side of the divine child
Abandonment, exposure, danger, etc., are all elaborations of the
"child's" insignificant beginnings and of its mysterious and miraculous
birth. This statement describes a certain psychic experience of a
creative nature, whose object is the emergence of a new and as yet
unknown content. In the psychology of the individual there is always, at
such moments, an agonizing situation of conflict from which there seems
to be no way out-at least for the conscious mind, since as far as this
is concerned, tertium non datur.[Ibid., par.
"Child" means something evolving towards independence. This it cannot
do without detaching itself from its origins: abandonment is therefore a
necessary condition [of consciousness], not just a concomitant
symptom.[Ibid., par. 287.]
Circumambulation. A term used to describe the interpretation of
an image by reflecting on it from different points of view.
Circumambulation differs from free association in that it is circular, not
linear. Where free association leads away from the original image,
circumambulation stays close to it.
Collective. Psychic contents that belong not to one individual
but to a society, a people or the human race in general. (See also
collective unconscious, individuation and persona.)
The conscious personality is a more or less arbitrary segment of the
collective psyche. It consists in a sum of psychic factors that are felt
to be personal ["The Persona as a Segment of the
Collective Psyche," CW 7, par. 244.]
Identification with the collective and voluntary segregation from it
are alike synonymous with disease.[The Structure of the
Unconscious," ibid., par. 485]
A collective quality adheres not only to particular psychic elements or
contents but to whole psychological functions.
Thus the thinking function as a whole can have a collective quality,
when it possesses general validity and accords with the laws of logic.
Similarly, the feeling function as a whole can be collective, when it is
identical with the general feeling and accords with general
expectations, the general moral consciousness, etc. In the same way,
sensation and intuition are collective when they are at the same time
characteristic of a large group.["Definitions," CW 6, par.
Collective unconscious. A structural layer of the human psyche
containing inherited elements, distinct from the personal
unconscious. (See also archetype and archetypal
The collective unconscious contains the whole spiritual heritage of
mankind's evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every
individual.[The Structure of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
Jung derived his theory of the collective unconscious from the ubiquity
of psychological phenomena that could not be explained on the basis of
personal experience. Unconscious fantasy activity, for instance, falls
into two categories.
First, fantasies (including dreams) of a personal character, which go
back unquestionably to personal experiences, things forgotten or
repressed, and can thus be completely explained by individual anamnesis.
Second, fantasies (including dreams) of an impersonal character, which
cannot be reduced to experiences in the individual's past, and thus
cannot be explained as something individually acquired. These
fantasy-images undoubtedly have their closest analogues in mythological
types. . . . These cases are so numerous that we are obliged to assume
the existence of a collective psychic substratum. I have called this
the collective unconscious.[The Psychology of the
Child Archetype," CW 9i, par. 262.]
The collective unconscious-so far as we can say anything about it at
all-appears to consist of mythological motifs or primordial images, for
which reason the myths of all nations are its real exponents. In fact,
the whole of mythology could be taken as a sort of projection of the
collective unconscious. . . . We can therefore study the collective
unconscious in two ways, either in mythology or in the analysis of the
individual.["The Structure of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
The more one becomes aware of the contents of the personal unconscious,
the more is revealed of the rich layer of images and motifs that comprise
the collective unconscious. This has the effect of enlarging the
In this way there arises a consciousness which is no longer
imprisoned in the petty, oversensitive, personal world of the ego, but
participates freely in the wider world of objective interests. This
widened consciousness is no longer that touchy, egotistical bundle of
personal wishes, fears, hopes, and ambitions which always has to be
compensated or corrected by unconscious counter-tendencies; instead, it
is a function of relationship to the world of objects, bringing the
individual into absolute, binding, and indissoluble communion with the
world at large.[The Function of the Unconscious," CW 7,
Compensation. A natural process aimed at establishing or
maintaining balance within the psyche. (See also active imagination,
dreams, neurosis and self-regulation of the psyche.)
The activity of consciousness is selective. Selection demands
direction. But direction requires the exclusion of everything
irrelevant. This is bound to make the conscious orientation
one-sided. The contents that are excluded and inhibited by the chosen
direction sink into the unconscious, where they form a counterweight to
the conscious orientation. The strengthening of this counterposition
keeps pace with the increase of conscious one-sidedness until finally .
. . . the repressed unconscious contents break through in the form of
dreams and spontaneous images. . . . As a rule, the unconscious
compensation does not run counter to consciousness, but is rather a
balancing or supplementing of the conscious orientation. In dreams, for
instance, the unconscious supplies all those contents that are
constellated by the conscious situation but are inhibited by conscious
selection, although a knowledge of them would be indispensable for
complete adaptation["Definitions," CW 6, par. 694.]
In neurosis, where consciousness is one-sided to an extreme, the aim of
analytic therapy is the realization and assimilation of unconscious
contents so that compensation may be reestablished. This can often be
accomplished by paying close attention to dreams, emotions and behavior
patterns, and through active imagination.
Complex. An emotionally charged group of ideas or images. (See
also Word Association Experiment.)
[A complex] is the image of a certain psychic situation which
is strongly accentuated emotionally and is, moreover, incompatible with
the habitual attitude of consciousness.["A Review of the
Complex Theory," CW 8, par. 201.]
The via regia to the unconscious . . . is not the dream, as
[Freud] thought, but the complex, which is the architect of dreams and
of symptoms. Nor is this via so very "royal," either, since the
way pointed out by the complex is more like a rough and uncommonly
devious footpath.[ Ibid., par. 210.]
Formally, complexes are "feeling-toned ideas" that over the years
accumulate around certain archetypes, for instance "mother" and "father."
When complexes are constellated, they are invariably accompanied by
affect. They are always relatively autonomous.
Complexes interfere with the intentions of the will and disturb the
conscious performance; they produce disturbances of memory and blockages
in the flow of associations; they appear and disappear according to
their own laws; they can temporarily obsess consciousness, or influence
speech and action in an unconscious way. In a word, complexes behave
like independent beings.[Psychological Factors in Human
Behaviour," ibid., par. 253.]
Complexes are in fact "splinter psyches." The aetiology of their
origin is frequently a so-called trauma, an emotional shock or some such
thing, that splits off a bit of the psyche. Certainly one of the
commonest causes is a moral conflict, which ultimately derives from the
apparent impossibility of affirming the whole of one's nature.["A Review of the Complex Theory," ibid., par. 204.]
Everyone knows nowadays that people "have complexes." What is not so
well known, though far more important theoretically, is that complexes
can have us.[Ibid., par.
Jung stressed that complexes in themselves are not negative; only their
effects often are. In the same way that atoms and molecules are the
invisible components of physical objects, complexes are the building
blocks of the psyche and the source of all human emotions.
Complexes are focal or nodal points of psychic life which we would
not wish to do without; indeed, they should not be missing, for
otherwise psychic activity would come to a fatal standstill.["A Psychological Theory of Types," CW 6, par. 925.]
Complexes obviously represent a kind of inferiority in the broadest
sense . . . [but] to have complexes does not necessarily indicate
inferiority. It only means that something discordant, unassimilated, and
antagonistic exists, perhaps as an obstacle, but also as an incentive to
greater effort, and so, perhaps, to new possibilities of
achievement.[Ibid., par. 925.]
Some degree of one-sidedness is unavoidable, and, in the same
measure, complexes are unavoidable too.["Psychological
Factors in Human Behaviour," CW 8, par. 255.]
The negative effect of a complex is commonly experienced as a
distortion in one or other of the psychological functions (feeling,
thinking, intuition and sensation). In place of sound judgment and an
appropriate feeling response, for instance, one reacts according to what
the complex dictates. As long as one is unconscious of the complexes, one
is liable to be driven by them.
The possession of complexes does not in itself signify neurosis . . .
and the fact that they are painful is no proof of pathological
disturbance. Suffering is not an illness; it is the normal counterpole
to happiness. A complex becomes pathological only when we think we have
not got it.[Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life," CW
16, par. 179.]
Identification with a complex, particularly the anima/animus and the
shadow, is a frequent source of neurosis. The aim of analysis in such
cases is not to get rid of the complexes-as if that were possible-but to
minimize their negative effects by understanding the part they play in
behavior patterns and emotional reactions.
A complex can be really overcome only if it is lived out to the full.
In other words, if we are to develop further we have to draw to us and
drink down to the very dregs what, because of our complexes, we have
held at a distance.["Psychological Aspects of the Mother
Archetype," CW 9i, par. 184.]
Concretism. A way of thinking or feeling that is archaic
and undifferentiated, based entirely on perception through sensation.
Concretism as a way of mental
functioning is closely related to the more general concept of
participation mystique. Concrete thinking and feeling are attuned
to and bound by physiological stimuli and material facts. Such an
orientation is valuable in the recognition of outer reality, but deficient
in how it is interpreted.
Concretism results in a projection of . . . inner factors into the
objective data and produces an almost superstitious veneration of mere
facts.["Definitions," CW 6, par. 699.]
[Concrete thinking] has no detached independence but clings to
material phenomena. It rises at most to the level of analogy.
Primitive feeling is equally bound to material phenomena. Both of them
depend on sensation and are only slight differentiated from it.
Concret-ism, therefore, is an archaism. The magical influence of the
fetish is not experienced as a subjective state of feeling, but sensed
as a magical effect. That is concretistic feeling. The primitive does
not experience the idea of the divinity as a subjective content; for him
the sacred tree is the abode of the god, or even the god himself. That
is concretistic thinking. In civilized man, concretistic thinking
consists in the inability to conceive of anything except immediately
obvious facts transmitted by the senses, or in the inability to
discriminate between subjective feeling and the sensed object.[Ibid., par. 697.]
Conflict. A state of indecision, accompanied by inner tension.
(See also opposites and transcendent function.)
The apparently unendurable conflict is proof of the rightness of your
life. A life without inner contradiction is either only half a life or
else a life in the Beyond, which is destined only for angels. But God
loves human beings more than the angels.[C.G. Jung
Letters, vol. 1, p. 375.]
The self is made manifest in the opposites and in the conflict
between them; it is a coincidentia oppositorum [coincidence of
opposites]. Hence the way to the self begins with conflict.["Individual Dream Symbolism in Relation to Alchemy," CW 12,
Conflict is a hallmark of neurosis, but conflict is not invariably
neurotic. Some degree of conflict is even desirable since without some
tension between opposites the developmental process is inhibited. Conflict
only becomes neurotic when it interferes with the normal functioning of
The stirring up of conflict is a Luciferian virtue in the true sense
of the word. Conflict engenders fire, the fire of affects and emotions,
and like every other fire it has two aspects, that of combustion and
that of creating light.["Psychological Aspects of the
Mother Archetype," CW 9i, par. 179.]
When a conflict is unconscious, tension manifests as physical symptoms,
particularly in the stomach, the back and the neck. Conscious conflict is
experienced as moral or ethical tension. Serious conflicts, especially
those involving love or duty, generally involve a disparity between the
functions of thinking and feeling. If one or the other is not a conscious
participant in the conflict, it needs to be introduced.
The objection [may be] advanced that many conflicts are intrinsically
insoluble. People sometimes take this view because they think only of
external solutions-which at bottom are not solutions at all. . . . A
real solution comes only from within, and then only because the patient
has been brought to a different attitude.["Some Crucial
Points in Psychoanalysis," CW 4, par. 606.]
Jung's major contribution to the psychology of conflict was his belief
that it had a purpose in terms of the self-regulation of the psyche. If
the tension between the opposites can be held in consciousness, then
something will happen internally to resolve the conflict. The solution,
essentially irrational and unforeseeable, generally appears as a new
attitude toward oneself and the outer situation, together with a sense of
peace; energy previously locked up in indecision is released and the
progression of libido becomes possible. Jung called this the tertium
non datur or transcendent function, because what happens transcends
Holding the tension between opposites requires
patience and a strong ego, otherwise a decision will be made out of
desperation. Then the opposite will be constellated even more strongly and
the conflict will continue with renewed force.
hypothesis in working with neurotic conflict was that separate
personalities in oneself-complexes-were involved. As long as these are not
made conscious they are acted out externally, through projection.
Conflicts with other people are thus essentially externalizations of an
unconscious conflict within oneself.
Coniunctio. Literally, "conjunction," used in alchemy to refer
to chemical combinations; psychologically, it points to the union of
opposites and the birth of new possibilities.
The coniunctio is an a priori image that occupies a
prominent place in the history of man's mental development. If we trace
this idea back we find it has two sources in alchemy, one Christian, the
other pagan. The Christian source is unmistakably the doctrine of Christ
and the Church, sponsus and sponsa, where Christ takes the
role of Sol and the Church that of Luna. The pagan source is on the one
hand the hieros-gamos, on the other the marital union of the mystic with
God.[The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16, par.
Other alchemical terms used by Jung with a near-equivalent
psychological meaning include unio mystica (mystic or sacred
marriage), coincidentia oppositorum (coincidence of opposites),
complexio oppositorum (the opposites embodied in a single image)
unus mundus (one world) and Philosophers' Stone.
Consciousness. The function or activity which maintains the
relation of psychic contents to the ego; distinguished conceptually from
the psyche, which encompasses both consciousness and the
unconscious. (See also opposites.)
There is no consciousness without discrimination of opposites.["Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype," CW 9i, par.
There are two distinct ways in which consciousness arises. The one is
a moment of high emotional tension, comparable to the scene in
Parsifal where the hero, at the very moment of greatest
temptation, suddenly realizes the meaning of Amfortas' wound. The other
is a state of contemplation, in which ideas pass before the mind like
dream-images. Suddenly there is a flash of association between two
apparently disconnected and widely separated ideas, and this has the
effect of releasing a latent tension. Such a moment often works like a
revelation. In every case it seems to be the discharge of
energy-tension, whether external or internal, which produces
consciousness.["Analytical Psychology and Education," CW
17, par. 207.]
In Jung's view of the psyche, individual consciousness is a
superstructure based on, and arising out of, the unconscious.
Consciousness does not create itself-it wells up from unknown depths.
In childhood it awakens gradually, and all through life it wakes each
morning out of the depths of sleep from an unconscious condition. It is
like a child that is born daily out of the primordial womb of the
unconscious. . . . It is not only influenced by the unconscious but
continually emerges out of it in the form of numberless spontaneous
ideas and sudden flashes of thought.["The Psychology of
Eastern Meditation," CW 11, par. 935.]
Constellate. To activate, usually used with reference to a
complex and an accompanying pattern of emotional reactions.
This term simply expresses the fact that the outward situation
releases a psychic process in which certain contents gather together and
prepare for action. When we say that a person is "constellated" we mean
that he has taken up a position from which he can be expected to react
in a quite definite way. . . . The constellated contents are definite
complexes possessing their own specific energy.["A Review
of the Complex Theory," CW 8, par. 198.]
Constructive. An approach to the interpretation of psychic
activity based on its goal or purpose rather than its cause or source.
(See also final; compare reductive.)
I use constructive and synthetic to designate a method that is the
antithesis of reductive. The constructive method is concerned with the
elaboration of the products of the unconscious (dreams, fantasies,
etc.). It takes the unconscious product as a symbolic expression which
anticipates a coming phase of psychological development["Definitions," CW 6, par. 701.]
The constructive or synthetic method of treatment presupposes
insights which are at least potentially present in the patient and can
therefore be made conscious.["The Transcendent Function,"
CW 8, par. 145.]
The constructive method involves both the amplification of symbols and
their interpretation on the subjective level. Its use in dream
interpretation aims at understanding how the conscious orientation may be
modified in light of the dream's symbolic message. This is in line with
Jung's belief that the psyche is a self-regulating system.
treatment of neurosis, Jung saw the constructive method as complementary,
not in opposition, to the reductive approach of classical
We apply a largely reductive point of view in all cases where it is a
question of illusions, fictions, and exaggerated attitudes. On the other
hand, a constructive point of view must be considered for all cases
where the conscious attitude is more or less normal, but capable of
greater development and refinement, or where unconscious tendencies,
also capable of development, are being misunderstood and kept under by
the conscious mind.["Analytical Psychology and Education,"
CW 17, par. 195.]
Countertransference. A particular case of projection,
used to describe the unconscious emotional response of the analyst to the
analysand in a therapeutic relationship. (See also
A transference is answered by a counter-transference from the analyst
when it projects a content of which he is unconscious but which
nevertheless exists in him. The counter-transference is then just as
useful and meaningful, or as much of a hindrance, as the transference of
the patient, according to whether or not it seeks to establish that
better rapport which is essential for the realization of certain
unconscious contents. Like the transference, the counter-transference is
compulsive, a forcible tie, because it creates a "mystical" or
unconscious identity with the object[General Aspects of
Dream Psychology," CW 8, par. 519.]
A workable analytic relationship is predicated on the assumption that
the analyst is not as neurotic as the analysand. Although a lengthy
personal analysis is the major requirement in the training of analysts,
this is no guarantee against projection.
Even if the analyst has no neurosis, but only a rather more extensive
area of unconsciousness than usual, this is sufficient to produce a
sphere of mutual unconsciousness, i.e., a counter-transference. This
phenomenon is one of the chief occupational hazards of psychotherapy. It
causes psychic infections in both analyst and patient and brings the
therapeutic process to a standstill. This state of unconscious identity
is also the reason why an analyst can help his patient just so far as he
himself has gone and not a step further.[Appendix," CW 16,
Crucifixion. An archetypal motif associated with conflict
and the problem of the opposites.
Nobody who finds himself on the road to wholeness can escape that
characteristic suspension which is the meaning of crucifixion. For he
will infallibly run into things that thwart and "cross" him: first, the
thing he has no wish to be (the shadow); second, the thing he is not
(the "other," the individual reality of the "You"); and third, his
psychic non-ego (the collective unconscious).[The
Psychology of the Transference," ibid., par. 470.]
Depotentiate. The process of removing energy from an unconscious
content by assimilating its meaning.
Depression. A psychological state characterized by lack of
energy. (See also abaissement du niveau mental, final, libido,
night sea journey and regression.) Energy not available to
consciousness does not simply vanish. It regresses and stirs up
unconscious contents (fantasies, memories, wishes, etc.) that for the sake
of psychological health need to be brought to light and examined.
Depression should therefore be regarded as an unconscious
compensation whose content must be made conscious if it is to be fully
effective. This can only be done by consciously regressing along with
the depressive tendency and integrating the memories so activated into
the conscious mind-which was what the depression was aiming at in the
first place.["The Sacrifice," CW 5, par.
Depression is not necessarily pathological. It often foreshadows a
renewal of the personality or a burst of creative activity.
There are moments in human life when a new page is turned. New
interests and tendencies appear which have hitherto received no
attention, or there is a sudden change of personality (a so-called
mutation of character). During the incubation period of such a change we
can often observe a loss of conscious energy: the new development has
drawn off the energy it needs from consciousness. This lowering of
energy can be seen most clearly before the onset of certain psychoses
and also in the empty stillness which precedes creative work.["The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16, par.
Differentiation. The separation of parts from a whole, necessary
for conscious access to the psychological functions.
So long as a function is still so fused with one or more other
functions-thinking with feeling, feeling with sensation, etc.-that it is
unable to operate on its own, it is in an archaic condition,
i.e., not differentiated, not separated from the whole as a special part
and existing by itself. Undifferentiated thinking is incapable of
thinking apart from other functions; it is continually mixed up with
sensations, feelings, intuitions, just as undifferentiated feeling is
mixed up with sensations and fantasies.["Definitions," CW
6, par. 705.]
An undifferentiated function is characterized by ambivalence (every
position entails its own negative), which leads to characteristic
inhibitions in its use.
Differentiation consists in the separation of the function from other
functions, and in the separation of its individual parts from each
other. Without differentiation direction is impossible, since the
direction of a function towards a goal depends on the elimination of
anything irrelevant. Fusion with the irrelevant precludes direction;
only a differentiated function is capable of being directed.[ Ibid., par. 705.]
Dissociation. The splitting of a personality into its
component parts or complexes, characteristic of
A dissociation is not healed by being split off, but by more complete
disintegration. All the powers that strive for unity, all healthy desire
for selfhood, will resist the disintegration, and in this way he will
become conscious of the possibility of an inner integration, which
before he had always sought outside himself. He will then find his
reward in an undivided self.["Marriage as a Psychological
Relationship," CW 17, pars. 334f.]
In the analysis of neurotic breakdowns, the aim is to make the
conscious ego aware of autonomous complexes. This can be done both through
reductive analysis and by objectifying them in the process of active
Every form of communication with the split-off part of the psyche is
therapeutically effective. This effect is also brought about by the real
or merely supposed discovery of the causes. Even when the discovery is
no more than an assumption or a fantasy, it has a healing effect at
least by suggestion if the analyst himself believes in it and makes a
serious attempt to understand.[The Philosophical Tree," CW
13, par. 465.]
Dreams. Independent, spontaneous manifestations of the
unconscious; fragments of involuntary psychic activity just conscious
enough to be reproducible in the waking state.
Dreams are neither deliberate nor arbitrary fabrications; they are
natural phenomena which are nothing other than what they pretend to be.
They do not deceive, they do not lie, they do not distort or disguise. .
. . They are invariably seeking to express something that the ego does
not know and does not understand.["Analytical Psychology
and Education," CW 17, par. 189.]
In symbolic form, dreams picture the current situation in the psyche
from the point of view of the unconscious.
Since the meaning of most dreams is not in accord with the
tendencies of the conscious mind but shows peculiar deviations, we must
assume that the unconscious, the matrix of dreams, has an independent
function. This is what I call the autonomy of the unconscious. The dream
not only fails to obey our will but very often stands in flagrant
opposition to our conscious intentions["On the Nature of
Dreams," CW 8, par. 545.]
Jung acknowledged that in some cases dreams have a wish-fulfilling and
sleep-preserving function (Freud) or reveal an infantile striving for
power (Adler), but he focused on their symbolic content and their
compensatory role in the self-regulation of the psyche: they reveal
aspects of oneself that are not normally conscious, they disclose
unconscious motivations operating in relationships and present new points
of view in conflict situations.
In this regard there are three possibilities. If the conscious
attitude to the life situation is in large degree one-sided, then the
dream takes the opposite side. If the conscious has a position fairly
near the "middle," the dream is satisfied with variations. If the
conscious attitude is "correct" (adequate), then the dream coincides
with and emphasizes this tendency, though without forfeiting its
peculiar autonomy.[ Ibid., par.
In Jung's view, a dream is an interior drama.
The whole dream-work is essentially subjective, and a dream is a
theatre in which the dreamer is himself the scene, the player, the
prompter, the producer, the author, the public, and the critic.["General Aspects of Dream Psychology," ibid., par.
This conception gives rise to the interpretation of dreams on the
subjective level, where the images in them are seen as symbolic
representations of elements in the dreamer's own personality.
Interpretation on the objective level refers the images to people and
situations in the outside world.
Many dreams have a classic
dramatic structure. There is an exposition (place, time and
characters), which shows the initial situation of the dreamer. In the
second phase there is a development in the plot (action takes
place). The third phase brings the culmination or climax (a
decisive event occurs). The final phase is the lysis, the result or
solution (if any) of the action in the dream.
Ego. The central complex in the field of consciousness. (See
The ego, the subject of consciousness, comes into existence as a
complex quantity which is constituted partly by the inherited
disposition (character constituents) and partly by unconsciously
acquired impressions and their attendant phenomena ["Analytical Psychology and Education," CW 17, par.
Jung pointed out that knowledge of the ego-personality is often
confused with self-understanding.
Anyone who has any ego-consciousness at all takes it for granted that
he knows himself. But the ego knows only its own contents, not the
unconscious and its contents. People measure their self-knowledge by
what the average person in their social environment knows of himself,
but not by the real psychic facts which are for the most part hidden
from them. In this respect the psyche behaves like the body, of whose
physiological and anatomical structure the average person knows very
little too. ["The Undiscovered Self," CW 10, par.
In the process of individuation, one of the initial tasks is to
differentiate the ego from the complexes in the personal unconscious,
particularly the persona, the shadow and anima/animus. A strong ego can
relate objectively to these and other contents of the unconscious without
identifying with them.
Because the ego experiences itself as the center of the psyche, it is
especially difficult to resist identification with the self, to which it
owes its existence and to which, in the hierarchy of the psyche, it is
The ego stands to the self as the moved to the mover, or as object to
subject, because the determining factors which radiate out from the self
surround the ego on all sides and are therefore supraordinate to it. The
self, like the unconscious, is an a priori existent out of which
the ego evolves.["Transformation Symbolism in the Mass,"
CW 11, par. 391.]
Identification with the self can manifest in two ways: the
assimilation of the ego by the self, in which case the ego falls under
the control of the unconscious; or the assimilation of the self to the
ego, where the ego becomes overaccentuated. In both cases the result
is inflation, with disturbances in adaptation.
In the first case, reality has to be protected against an archaic . .
. dream-state; in the second, room must be made for the dream at the
expense of the world of consciousness. In the first case, mobilization
of all the virtues is indicated; in the second, the presumption of the
ego can only be damped down by moral defeat.[The Self," CW
9ii, par. 47.]
Emotion. An involuntary reaction due to an active
complex. (See also affect.)
On the one hand, emotion is the alchemical fire whose warmth brings
everything into existence and whose heat burns all superfluities to
ashes (omnes superfluitates comburit). But on the other hand, emotion is
the moment when steel meets flint and a spark is struck forth, for
emotion is the chief source of consciousness. There is no change from
darkness to light or from inertia to movement without emotion. ["Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype," CW 9i, par.
Empathy. An introjection of the object, based on the unconscious
projection of subjective contents. (Compare identification.)
Empathy presupposes a subjective attitude of confidence, or
trustfulness towards the object. It is a readiness to meet the object
halfway, a subjective assimilation that brings about a good
understanding between subject and object, or at least simulates it.
["The Type Problem in Aesthetics," CW 6, par.
In contrast to abstraction, associated with introversion, empathy
corresponds to the attitude of extraversion.
The man with the empathetic attitude finds himself . . . in a world
that needs his subjective feeling to give it life and soul. He animates
it with himself. [ Ibid., par. 492.]
Enantiodromia. Literally, "running counter to," referring to the
emergence of the unconscious opposite in the course of time.
This characteristic phenomenon practically always occurs when an
extreme, one-sided tendency dominates conscious life; in time an equally
powerful counterposition is built up, which first inhibits the conscious
performance and subsequently breaks through the conscious control. [Definitions," ibid., par. 709.]
Enantiodromia is typically experienced in conjunction with symptoms
associated with acute neurosis, and often foreshadows a rebirth of the
The grand plan on which the unconscious life of the psyche is
constructed is so inaccessible to our understanding that we can never
know what evil may not be necessary in order to produce good by
enantiodromia, and what good may very possibly lead to evil.[The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales," CW 9i, par.
Energic. See final.
Eros. In Greek mythology, the personification of love, a
cosmogonic force of nature; psychologically, the function of relationship.
(See also anima, animus, Logos and mother complex.)
Woman's consciousness is characterized more by the connective quality
of Eros than by the discrimination and cognition associated with Logos.
In men, Eros . . . is usually less developed than Logos. In women, on
the other hand, Eros is an expression of their true nature, while their
Logos is often only a regrettable accident. [The Syzygy:
Anima and Animus," CW 9ii, par. 29.]
Eros is a questionable fellow and will always remain so . . . . He
belongs on one side to man's primordial animal nature which will endure
as long as man has an animal body. On the other side he is related to
the highest forms of the spirit. But he thrives only when spirit and
instinct are in right harmony.[The Eros Theory," CW 7,
Where love reigns, there is no will to power; and where the will to
power is paramount, love is lacking. The one is but the shadow of the
other: the man who adopts the standpoint of Eros finds his compensatory
opposite in the will to power, and that of the man who puts the accent
on power is Eros.[The Problem of the Attitude-Type,"
ibid., par. 78.]
An unconscious Eros always expresses itself as will to power. ["Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype," CW 9i, par.
Extraversion. A mode of psychological orientation where
the movement of energy is toward the outer world. (Compare
Extraversion is characterized by interest in the external object,
responsiveness, and a ready acceptance of external happenings, a desire
to influence and be influenced by events, a need to join in and get
"with it," the capacity to endure bustle and noise of every kind, and
actually find them enjoyable, constant attention to the surrounding
world, the cultivation of friends and acquaintances, none too carefully
selected, and finally by the great importance attached to the figure one
cuts.["Psychological Typology," CW 6, par.
Jung believed that introversion and extraversion were present in
everyone, but that one attitude-type is invariably dominant. When external
factors are the prime motivating force for judgments, perceptions, affects
and actions, we have an extraverted attitude or type.
The extravert's philosophy of life and his ethics are as a rule of a
highly collective nature with a strong streak of altruism, and his
conscience is in large measure dependent on public opinion.[ Ibid.]
Jung believed that type differentiation begins very early in life, so
that it might be described as innate.
The earliest sign of extraversion in a child is his quick adaptation
to the environment, and the extraordinary attention he gives to objects
and especially to the effect he has on them. Fear of objects is minimal;
he lives and moves among them with confidence. . . and can therefore
play with them freely and learn through them. He likes to carry his
enterprises to the extreme and exposes himself to risks. Everything
unknown is alluring.[Psychological Types," ibid., par.
In general, the extravert trusts what is received from the outside
world and is not inclined to examine personal motivations.
He has no secrets he has not long since shared with others. Should
something unmentionable nevertheless befall him, he prefers to forget
it. Anything that might tarnish the parade of optimism and positivism is
avoided. Whatever he thinks, intends, and does is displayed with
conviction and warmth.["Psychological Typology," ibid.,
Although everyone is affected by objective data, the extravert's
thoughts, decisions and behavior are determined by them. Personal views
and the inner life take second place to outer conditions.
He lives in and through others; all self-communings give him the
creeps. Dangers lurk there which are better drowned out by noise. If he
should ever have a "complex," he finds refuge in the social whirl and
allows himself to be assured several times a day that everything is in
order. [ Ibid., par. 974.]
The psychic life of the extreme extraverted type is enacted wholly in
reaction to the environment, which determines the personal standpoint. If
the mores change, he adjusts his views and behavior patterns to match.
This is both a strength and a limitation.
Adjustment is not adaptation; adaptation . . . requires observance of
laws more universal than the immediate conditions of time and place. The
very adjustment of the normal extraverted type is his limitation. He
owes his normality . . . to his ability to fit into existing conditions
with comparative ease. His requirements are limited to the objectively
possible, for instance to the career that holds out good prospects at
this particular moment; he does what is needed of him, or what is
expected of him, and refrains from all innovations that are not entirely
self-evident or that in any way exceed the expectations of those around
him["General Description of the Types," CW 6, par.
Extraversion is an asset in social situations and in relating to the
external environment. But a too-extraverted attitude may result in
sacrificing oneself in order to fulfil what one sees as objective
demands-the needs of others, for instance, or the requirements of an
This is the extravert's danger: He gets sucked into objects and
completely loses himself in them. The resultant functional disorders,
nervous or physical, have a compensatory value, as they force him into
an involuntary self-restraint. Should the symptoms be functional, their
peculiar character may express his psychological situation in symbolic
form; for instance, a singer whose fame has risen to dangerous heights
that tempt him to expend too much energy suddenly finds he cannot sing
high notes . . . . Or a man of modest beginnings who rapidly reaches a
social position of great influence with wide prospects is suddenly
afflicted with all the symptoms of mountain sickness.[
Ibid., par. 565.]
The form of neurosis most likely to afflict the extravert is hysteria,
which typically manifests as a pronounced identification with persons in
the immediate environment.
The extravert's tendency to sacrifice
inner reality to outer circumstances is not a problem as long as the
extraversion is not too extreme. But to the extent that it becomes
necessary to compensate the inclination to one-sidedness, there will arise
a markedly self-centered tendency in the unconscious. All those needs or
desires that are stifled or repressed by the conscious attitude come in
the back door, in the form of infantile thoughts and emotions that center
The more complete the conscious attitude of extraversion is, the more
infantile and archaic the unconscious attitude will be. The egoism which
characterizes the extravert's unconscious attitude goes far beyond mere
childish selfishness; it verges on the ruthless and brutal. [ Ibid., par. 572.]
The danger then is that the extravert, so habitually and apparently
selflessly attuned to the outside world and the needs of others, may
suddenly become quite indifferent.
Fantasy. A complex of ideas or imaginative activity expressing
the flow of psychic energy. (See also active imagination.)
A fantasy needs to be understood both causally and purposively.
Causally interpreted, it seems like a symptom of a physiological
state, the outcome of antecedent events. Purposively interpreted, it
seems like a symbol, seeking to characterize a definite goal with the
help of the material at hand, or trace out a line of future
psychological development. ["Definitions," CW 6, par.
Jung distinguished between active and passive fantasies.
The for-mer, characteristic of the creative mentality, are evoked by an
intuitive attitude directed toward the perception of unconscious contents;
passive fantasies are spontaneous and autonomous manifestations of
Passive fantasy, therefore, is always in need of conscious criticism,
lest it merely reinforce the standpoint of the unconscious opposite.
Whereas active fantasy, as the product of a conscious attitude not
opposed to the unconscious, and of unconscious processes not opposed but
merely compensatory to consciousness, does not require criticism so much
as understanding.[Ibid., par.
Jung developed the method of active imagination as a way of
assimilating the meaning of fantasies. The important thing is not to
interpret but to experience them.
Continual conscious realization of unconscious fantasies, together
with active participation in the fantastic events, has . . . the effect
firstly of extending the conscious horizon by the inclusion of numerous
unconscious contents; secondly of gradually diminishing the dominant
influence of the unconscious; and thirdly of bringing about a change of
personality. [The Technique of Differentiation," CW 7,
Father complex. A group of feeling-toned ideas associated with
the experience and image of father. (See also Logos.)
In men, a positive father-complex very often produces a certain
credulity with regard to authority and a distinct willingness to bow
down before all spiritual dogmas and values; while in women, it induces
the liveliest spiritual aspirations and interests. In dreams, it is
always the father-figure from whom the decisive convictions,
prohibitions, and wise counsels emanate. [The
Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales," CW 9i, par.
Jung's comments on the father complex were rarely more than asides in
writing about something else. In general, the father complex in a man
manifests in the persona (through identification) and as aspects of his
shadow; in a woman, it manifests in the nature of the animus, colored by
the projection of her father's anima.
The father exerts his influence on the mind or spirit of his
daughter-on her "Logos." This he does by increasing her intellectuality,
often to a pathological degree which in my later writings I have
described as "animus possession."[The Origin of the Hero,"
CW 5, par. 272.]
The father is the first carrier of the animus-image. He endows this
virtual image with substance and form, for on account of his Logos he is
the source of "spirit" for the daughter. Unfortunately this source is
often sullied just where we would expect clean water. For the spirit
that benefits a woman is not mere intellect, it is far more: it is an
attitude, the spirit by which a man lives. Even a so-called "ideal"
spirit is not always the best if it does not understand how to deal
adequately with nature, that is, with animal man. . . . Hence every
father is given the opportunity to corrupt, in one way or another, his
daughter's nature, and the educator, husband, or psychiatrist then has
to face the music. For "what has been spoiled by the father"[ A
reference to Hexagram 18 in the I Ching (Richard Wilhelm edition, p.
80): "Work ok on What Has Been Spoiled."] can only be made good by a
father.[The Personification of the Opposites," CW 14, par.
Feeling. The psychological function that evaluates or
judges what something or someone is worth. (Compare thinking.)
A feeling is as indisputable a reality as the existence of an
idea. [The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16, par.
The feeling function is the basis for "fight or flight" decisions. As a
subjective process, it may be quite independent of external stimuli. In
Jung's view it is a rational function, like thinking, in that it is
decisively influenced not by perception (as are the functions of sensation
and intuition) but by reflection. A person whose overall attitude is
oriented by the feeling function is called a feeling type.
everyday usage, feeling is often confused with emotion. The latter, more
appropriately called affect, is the result of an activated complex.
Feeling not contaminated by affect can be quite cold.
Feeling is distinguished from affect by the fact that it produces no
perceptible physical innervations, i.e., neither more nor less than an
ordinary thinking process. [Definitions," CW 6, par.
Feminine. See anima, Eros and Logos.
Final. A point of view based on the potential result or purpose
of psychic activity, complementary to a causal approach. (See also
constructive, neurosis, reductive, and self-regulation of the
Psychological data necessitate a twofold point of view, namely that of
causality and that of finality. I use the word finality
intentionally, in order to avoid confusion with the concept of teleology.
[Teleology implies the anticipation of a particular end or goal;
finality assumes purpose but an essentially unknown goal.] By finality
I mean merely the immanent psychological striving for a goal. Instead of
"striving for a goal" one could also say "sense of purpose." All
psychological phenomena have some such sense of purpose inherent in them,
even merely reactive phenomena like emotional reactions.[
"General Aspects of Dream Psychology," CW 8, par. 456.]
Jung also called the final point of view energic, contrasting it with
mechanistic or reductive.
The mechanistic view is purely causal; it conceives an event as the
effect of a cause, in the sense that unchanging substances change their
relations to one another according to fixed laws. The energic point of
view on the other hand is in essence final; the event is traced back
from effect to cause on the assumption that some kind of energy
underlies the changes in phenomena, that it maintains itself as a
constant throughout these changes and finally leads to entropy, a
condition of general equilibrium. The flow of energy has a definite
direction (goal) in that it follows the gradient of potential in a way
that cannot be reversed.[On Psychic Energy," ibid., pars.
Jung believed that laws governing the physical conservation of energy
applied equally to the psyche. Psychologically, this means that where
there is an overabundance of energy in one place, some other psychic
function has been deprived; conversely, when libido "disap-pears," as it
seems to do in a depression, it must appear in another form, for instance
as a symptom.
Every time we come across a person who has a "bee in his bonnet," or
a morbid conviction, or some extreme attitude, we know that there is too
much libido, and that the excess must have been taken from somewhere
else where, consequently, there is too little. . . . Thus the symptoms
of a neurosis must be regarded as exaggerated functions over-invested
with libido. . . .The question has to be reversed in the case of those
syndromes characterized mainly by lack of libido, for instance apathetic
states. Here we have to ask, where did the libido go? . . . The libido
is there, but it is not visible and is inaccessible to the patient
himself. . . . It is the task of psychoanalysis to search out that
hidden place where the libido dwells.[The Theory of
Psychoanalysis," CW 4, pars. 254f]
The energic or final point of view, coupled with the concept of
compensation, led Jung to believe that an outbreak of neurosis is
essentially an attempt by the psyche to cure itself.
Fourth function. See inferior function.
Function. A form of psychic activity, or manifestation of
libido, that remains the same in principle under varying conditions. (See
also auxiliary function, differentiation, inferior function, primary
function and typology.)
Jung's model of typology distinguishes four psychological functions:
thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition.
Sensation establishes what is actually present, thinking enables us
to recognize its meaning, feeling tells us its value, and intuition
points to possibilities as to whence it came and whither it is going in
a given situation.["A Psychological Theory of Types," CW
6, par. 958.]
Though all the functions exist in every psyche, one function is
invariably more consciously developed than the others, giving rise to a
one-sidedness that often leads to neurosis.
The more [a man] identifies with one function, the more he invests it
with libido, and the more he withdraws libido from the other functions.
They can tolerate being deprived of libido for even quite long periods,
but in the end they will react. Being drained of libido, they gradually
sink below the threshold of consciousness, lose their associative
connection with it, and finally lapse into the unconscious. This is a
regressive development, a reversion to the infantile and finally to the
archaic level. . . . [which] brings about a dissociation of the
personality.[The Type Problem in Aesthetics," ibid., pars.
Hero. An archetypal motif based on overcoming obstacles and
achieving certain goals.
The hero's main feat is to overcome the monster of darkness: it is
the long-hoped-for and expected triumph of consciousness over the
unconscious.[The Psychology of the Child Archetype," CW
9i, par. 284.]
The hero myth is an unconscious drama seen only in projection, like
the happenings in Plato's parable of the cave.[The Dual
Mother," CW 5, par. 612.]
The hero symbolizes a man's unconscious self, and this manifests
itself empirically as the sum total of all archetypes and therefore
includes the archetype of the father and of the wise old man. To that
extent the hero is his own father and his own begetter [Ibid., par. 516.]
Mythologically, the hero's goal is to find the treasure, the princess,
the ring, the golden egg, elixir of life, etc. Psychologically these are
metaphors for one's true feelings and unique potential. In the process of
individuation, the heroic task is to assimilate unconscious contents as
opposed to being overwhelmed by them. The potential result is the release
of energy that has been tied up with unconscious complexes.
In myths the hero is the one who conquers the dragon, not the one who
is devoured by it. And yet both have to deal with the same dragon. Also,
he is no hero who never met the dragon, or who, if he once saw it,
declared afterwards that he saw nothing. Equally, only one who has
risked the fight with the dragon and is not overcome by it wins the
hoard, the "treasure hard to attain." He alone has a genuine claim to
self-confidence, for he has faced the dark ground of his self and
thereby has gained himself. . . . He has acquired the right to believe
that he will be able to overcome all future threats by the same
means.["The Conjunction," CW 14, par.
The hero's journey is a round as illustrated in the diagram. [Adapted from Joseph Campbell, Hero with a Thousand Faces,
Bollingen Series XVII (Princeton University press, 1949), p.
In myth and legend, the hero typically travels by ship, fights a sea
monster, is swallowed, struggles against being bitten or crushed to death,
and having arrived inside the belly of the whale, like Jonah, seeks the
vital organ and cuts it off, thereby winning release. Eventually he must
return to his beginnings and bear witness.
In terms of a man's
individuation, the whale-dragon is the mother or the mother-bound anima.
The vital organ that must be severed is the umbilical cord.
The hero is the ideal masculine type: leaving the mother, the source
of life, behind him, he is driven by an unconscious desire to find her
again, to return to her womb. Every obstacle that rises in his path and
hampers his ascent wears the shadowy features of the Terrible Mother,
who saps his strength with the poison of secret doubt and retrospective
longing.["The Dual Mother," CW 5, par.
In a woman's psychology, the hero's journey is lived out through the
worldly exploits of the animus, or else in a male partner, through
Homosexuality. Usually characterized psychologically by
identification with the anima. (See also mother complex.)
Jung acknowledged the potential neurotic effects of homosexuality, but he
did not see it as an illness in itself.
In view of the recognized frequency of this phenomenon, its
interpretation as a pathological perversion is very dubious. The
psychological findings show that it is rather a matter of incomplete
detachment from the hermaphroditic archetype, coupled with a distinct
resistance to identify with the role of a one-sided sexual being. Such a
disposition should not be adjudged negative in all circumstances, in so
far as it preserves the archetype of the Original Man, which a one-sided
sexual being has, up to a point, lost.["Concerning the
Archetypes and the Anima Concept," CW 9i, par.
Hostile brothers. An archetypal motif associated with the
opposites constellated in a conflict situation. Examples of the
hostile brothers motif in mythology are the struggle between Gilgamesh and
Enkidu in The Gilgamesh Epic, and the Biblical story of Cain and
Abel. Psychologically, it is generally interpreted in terms of the tug of
war between ego and shadow.
Hysteria. A state of mind marked by an exaggerated rapport with
persons in the immediate environment and an adjustment to surrounding
conditions that amounts to imitation.
Hysteria is, in my view, by far the most frequent neurosis of the
extraverted type. . . . A constant tendency to make himself interesting
and produce an impression is a basic feature of the hysteric. The
corollary of this is his proverbial suggestibility, his proneness to
another person's influence. Another unmistakable sign of the extraverted
hysteric is his effusiveness, which occasionally carries him into the
realm of fantasy, so that he is accused of the "hysterical lie."["General Description of the Types," CW 6, par.
Hysterical neurosis is usually accompanied by compensatory reactions
from the unconscious.
[These] counteract the exaggerated extraversion by means of physical
symptoms that force the libido to introvert. The reaction of the
unconscious produces another class of symptoms having a more introverted
character, one of the most typical being a morbid intensification of
fantasy activity.[ Ibid., par. 566.]
Identification. A psychological process in which the personality
is partially or totally dissimilated. (See also participation
mystique and projection.)
Identity, denoting an
unconscious conformity between subject and object, oneself and others, is
the basis for identification, projection and introjection.
Identity is responsible for the naïve assumption that the psychology
of one man is like that of another, that the same motives occur
everywhere, that what is agreeable to me must obviously be pleasurable
for others, that what I find immoral must also be immoral for them, and
so on. It is also responsible for the almost universal desire to correct
in others what most needs correcting in oneself.["Definitions," ibid., par. 742.]
Identification facilitates early adaptation to the outside world, but
in later life becomes a hindrance to individual development.
For example, identification with the father means, in practice,
adopting all the father's ways of behaving, as though the son were the
same as the father and not a separate individuality. Identification
differs from imitation in that it is an unconscious imitation, whereas
imitation is a conscious copying. . . . Identification can be beneficial
so long as the individual cannot go his own way. But when a better
possibility presents itself, identification shows its morbid character
by becoming just as great a hindrance as it was an unconscious help and
support before. It now has a dissociative effect, splitting the
individual into two mutually estranged personalities.[
Ibid., par. 738.]
Identification with a complex (experienced as possession) is a frequent
source of neurosis, but it is also possible to identify with a particular
idea or belief.
The ego keeps its integrity only if it does not identify with one of
the opposites, and if it understands how to hold the balance between
them. This is possible only if it remains conscious of both at once.
However, the necessary insight is made exceedingly difficult not by
one's social and political leaders alone, but also by one's religious
mentors. They all want decision in favour of one thing, and therefore
the utter identification of the individual with a necessarily one-sided
"truth." Even if it were a question of some great truth, identification
with it would still be a catastrophe, as it arrests all further
spiritual development.[On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8,
One-sidedness is usually due to identifying with a particular conscious
attitude. This can result in losing touch with the compensating powers of
In a case like this the unconscious usually responds with violent
emotions, irritability, lack of control, arrogance, feelings of
inferiority, moods, depressions, outbursts of rage, etc., coupled with
lack of self-criticism and the misjudgments, mistakes, and delusions
which this entails.["The Philosophical Tree," CW 13, par.
Image, primordial. See archetype and archetypal
Imago. A term used to differentiate the objective reality of a
person or a thing from the subjective perception of its importance.
The image we form of a human object is, to a very large extent,
subjectively conditioned. In practical psychology, therefore, we would
do well to make a rigorous distinction between the image or imago
of a man and his real existence. Because of its extremely subjective
origin, the imago is frequently more an image of a subjective
functional complex than of the object itself. In the analytical
treatment of unconscious products it is essential that the imago
should not be assumed to be identical with the object; it is better to
regard it as an image of the subjective relation to the object. ["Definitions," CW 6, par. 812.]
Imagos are the consequence of personal experience combined with
archetypal images in the collective unconscious. Like everything else
unconscious, they are experienced in projection.
The more limited a man's field of consciousness is, the more numerous
the psychic contents (imagos) which meet him as quasi-external
apparitions, either in the form of spirits, or as magical potencies
projected upon living people (magicians, witches, etc.)["The Function of the Unconscious," CW 7, par.
Incest. Psychologically, the regressive longing for the security
of childhood and early youth.
Jung interpreted incest images in dreams
and fantasies not concretely but symbolically, as indicating the need for
a new adaptation more in accord with the instincts. (This differed so
radically from the psychoanalytic view that it led to his break with
So long as the child is in that state of unconscious identity with
the mother, he is still one with the animal psyche and is just as
unconscious as it. The development of consciousness inevitably leads not
only to separation from the mother, but to separation from the parents
and the whole family circle and thus to a relative degree of detachment
from the unconscious and the world of instinct. Yet the longing for this
lost world continues and, when difficult adaptations are demanded, is
forever tempting one to make evasions and retreats, to regress to the
infantile past, which then starts throwing up the incestuous
symbolism. [Symbols of the Mother and of Rebirth," CW 5,
Whenever [the] drive for wholeness appears, it begins by disguising
itself under the symbolism of incest, for, unless he seeks it in
himself, a man's nearest feminine counterpart is to be found in his
mother, sister, or daughter. ["The Psychology of the
Transference," CW 16, par. 471.]
Individual. Unique and unlike anyone else, distinguished from
what is collective. (See also individuality.)
A distinction must be made between individuality and the individual.
The individual is determined on the one hand by the principle of
uniqueness and distinctiveness, and on the other by the society to which
he belongs. He is an indispensable link in the social structure. [The Structure of the Unconscious," CW 7, par.
The individual is precisely that which can never be merged with the
collective and is never identical with it.[ Ibid., par.
The larger a community is, and the more the sum total of collective
factors peculiar to every large community rests on conservative
prejudices detrimental to individuality, the more will the individual be
morally and spiritually crushed, and, as a result, the one source of
moral and spiritual progress for society is choked up.[The
Assimilation of the Unconscious," ibid., par.
The individual standpoint is not antagonistic to collective norms, only
The individual way can never be directly opposed to the collective
norm, because the opposite of the collective norm could only be another,
but contrary, norm. But the individual way can, by definition, never be
a norm. [Definitions," CW 6, par.
Jung believed that the survival of the individual within a group
depended not only on psychological self-understanding, but also on the
personal experience of a higher truth.
The individual will never find the real justification for his
existence and his own spiritual and moral autonomy anywhere except in an
extramundane principle capable of relativizing the overpowering
influence of external factors. . . . For this he needs the evidence of
inner, transcendent experience which alone can protect him from the
otherwise inevitable submersion in the mass.[The
Undiscovered Self," CW 10, par. 511.]
Resistance to the organized mass can be effected only by the man
who is as well organized in his individuality as the mass itself.
[Ibid., par. 540 (italics in
Individualism. A belief in the supremacy of individual interests
over those of the collective, not to be confused with individuality
Individualism means deliberately stressing and giving prominence to
some supposed peculiarity rather than to collective considerations and
obligations. But individuation means precisely the better and more
complete fulfilment of the collective qualities of the human being,
since adequate consideration of the peculiarity of the individual is
more conducive to a better social performance than when the peculiarity
is neglected or suppressed.
. . . . Since the universal factors
always appear only in individual form, a full consideration of them will
also produce an individual effect, and one which cannot be surpassed by
anything else, least of all by individualism.["The
Function of the Unconscious," CW 7, pars. 267f.]
Individuality. The qualities or characteristics that distinguish
one person from another. (See also personality.)
By individuality I mean the peculiarity and singularity of the
individual in every psychological respect. Everything that is not
collective is individual, everything in fact that pertains only to one
individual and not to a larger group of
individuals.["Definitions," CW 6, par. 756.]
The psychological individual, or his individuality, has an a priori
unconscious existence, but exists consciously only so far as a
consciousness of his peculiar nature is present . . . . A conscious
process of differentiation, or individuation, is needed to bring the
individuality to consciousness, i.e., to raise it out of the state of
identity with the object.[ Ibid., par.
In the undifferentiated psyche, individuality is subjectively
identified with the persona but is actually possessed by an inner,
unrecognized aspect of oneself. In such cases, one's individuality is
commonly experienced in another person, through projection. If and when
this situation becomes intolerable to the psyche, appropriate images
appear in an attempt at compensation.
This . . . frequently gives rise in dreams to the symbol of psychic
pregnancy, a symbol that goes back to the primordial image of the hero's
birth. The child that is to be born signifies the individuality, which,
though present, is not yet conscious.[Ibid., par.
Individuation. A process of psychological
differentiation, having for its goal the development of the
In general, it is the process by which individual beings are formed
and differentiated; in particular, it is the development of the
psychological individual as a being distinct from the general,
collective psychology.[ Ibid., par. 757.]
The aim of individuation is nothing less than to divest the self of
the false wrappings of the persona on the one hand, and of the
suggestive power of primordial images on the other.["The
Function of the Unconscious," CW 7, par. 269. ]
Individuation is a process informed by the archetypal ideal of
wholeness, which in turn depends on a vital relationship between ego and
unconscious. The aim is not to overcome one's personal psychology, to
become perfect, but to become familiar with it. Thus individuation
involves an increasing awareness of one's unique psychological reality,
including personal strengths and limitations, and at the same time a
deeper appreciation of humanity in general.
As the individual is not just a single, separate being, but by his
very existence presupposes a collective relationship, it follows that
the process of individuation must lead to more intense and broader
collective relationships and not to isolation.[Definitions," CW 6, par. 758.]
Individuation does not shut one out from the world, but gathers the
world to itself.["On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
Individuation has two principle aspects: in the first place it is an
internal and subjective process of integration, and in the second it is
an equally indispensable process of objective relationship. Neither can
exist without the other, although sometimes the one and sometimes the
other predominates.[The Psychology of the Transference,"
CW 16, par. 448.]
Individuation and a life lived by collective values are nevertheless
two divergent destinies. In Jung's view they are related to one another by
guilt. Whoever embarks on the personal path becomes to some extent
estranged from collective values, but does not thereby lose those aspects
of the psyche which are inherently collective. To atone for this
"desertion," the individual is obliged to create something of worth for
the benefit of society.
Individuation cuts one off from personal conformity and hence from
collectivity. That is the guilt which the individuant leaves behind him
for the world, that is the guilt he must endeavor to redeem. He must
offer a ransom in place of himself, that is, he must bring forth values
which are an equivalent substitute for his absence in the collective
personal sphere. Without this production of values, final individuation
is immoral and-more than that-suicidal. . . .
The individuant has no
a priori claim to any kind of esteem. He has to be content with
whatever esteem flows to him from outside by virtue of the values he
creates. Not only has society a right, it also has a duty to condemn the
individuant if he fails to create equivalent values.["Adaptation, Individuation, Collectivity," CW 18, pars.
Individuation differs from individualism in that the former deviates
from collective norms but retains respect for them, while the latter
eschews them entirely.
A real conflict with the collective norm arises only when an
individual way is raised to a norm, which is the actual aim of extreme
individualism. Naturally this aim is pathological and inimical to life.
It has, accordingly, nothing to do with individuation, which, though it
may strike out on an individual bypath, precisely on that account needs
the norm for its orientation to society and for the vitally necessary
relationship of the individual to society. Individuation, therefore,
leads to a natural esteem for the collective norm. [Definitions," CW 6, par. 761.]
The process of individuation, consciously pursued, leads to the
realization of the self as a psychic reality greater than the ego. Thus
individuation is essentially different from the process of simply becoming
The goal of the individuation process is the synthesis of the
self. [The Psychology of the Child Archetype," CW 9i, par.
Again and again I note that the individuation process is confused
with the coming of the ego into consciousness and that the ego is in
consequence identified with the self, which naturally produces a
hopeless conceptual muddle. Individuation is then nothing but
ego-centredness and autoeroticism. But the self comprises infinitely
more than a mere ego, as the symbolism has shown from of old. It is as
much one's self, and all other selves, as the ego.[On the
Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par. 432.]
In Jung's view, no one is ever completely individuated. While the goal
is wholeness and a healthy working relationship with the self, the true
value of individuation lies in what happens along the way.
The goal is important only as an idea; the essential thing is the
opus which leads to the goal: that is the goal of a lifetime.["The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16, par.
Inferior function. The least differentiated of the four
psychological functions. (Compare primary function.)
The inferior function is practically identical with the dark side of
the human personality.["Concerning Rebirth," CW 9i, par.
In Jung's model of typology, the inferior or fourth function is
opposite to the superior or primary function. Whether it operates in an
introverted or extraverted way, it behaves like an autonomous complex; its
activation is marked by affect and it resists integration.
The inferior function secretly and mischievously influences the
superior function most of all, just as the latter represses the former
most strongly.["The Phenomenology of the Spirit in
Fairytales," ibid., par. 431.]
Positive as well as negative occurrences can constellate the inferior
counter-function. When this happens, sensitiveness appears.
Sensi-tiveness is a sure sign of of the presence of inferiority. This
provides the psychological basis for discord and misunderstanding, not
only as between two people, but also in ourselves. The essence of the
inferior function is autonomy: it is independent, it attacks, it
fascinates and so spins us about that we are no longer masters of
ourselves and can no longer rightly distinguish between ourselves and
others["The Problem of the Attitude-Type," CW 7, par.
The inferior function is always of the same nature, rational or
irrational, as the primary function: when thinking is most developed, the
other rational function, feeling, is inferior; if sensation is dominant,
then intuition, the other irrational function, is the fourth function, and
so on. This accords with general experience: the thinker is tripped up by
feeling values; the practical sensation type gets into a rut, blind to the
possibilities seen by intuition; the feeling type is deaf to logical
thinking; and the intuitive, at home in the inner world, runs afoul of
One may be aware of the perceptions or judgments
associated with the inferior function, but these are generally over-ridden
by the superior function. Thinking types, for example, do not give their
feelings much weight. Sensation types have intuitions, but they are not
motivated by them. Similarly, feeling types brush away disturbing thoughts
and intuitives ignore what is right in front of them.
Although the inferior function may be conscious as a phenomenon its
true significance nevertheless remains unrecognized. It behaves like
many repressed or insufficiently appreciated contents, which are partly
conscious and partly unconscious . . . . Thus in normal cases the
inferior function remains conscious, at least in its effects; but in a
neurosis it sinks wholly or in part into the unconscious.
["Definitions," CW 6, par. 764.]
To the extent that a person functions too one-sidedly, the inferior
function becomes correspondingly primitive and troublesome. The overly
dominant primary function takes energy away from the inferior function,
which falls into the unconscious. There it is prone to be activated in an
unnatural way, giving rise to infantile desires and other symptoms of
imbalance. This is the situation in neurosis.
In order to extricate the inferior function from the unconscious by
analysis, the unconscious fantasy formations that have now been
activated must be brought to the surface. The conscious realization of
these fantasies brings the inferior function to consciousness and makes
further development possible.[Ibid., par.
When it becomes desirable or necessary to develop the inferior
function, this can only happen gradually.
I have frequently observed how an analyst, confronted with a terrific
thinking type, for instance, will do his utmost to develop the feeling
function directly out of the unconscious. Such an attempt is foredoomed
to failure, because it involves too great a violation of the conscious
standpoint. Should the violation nevertheless be successful, a really
compulsive dependence of the patient on the analyst ensues, a
transference that can only be brutally terminated, because, having been
left without a standpoint, the patient has made his standpoint the
analyst. . . . [Therefore] in order to cushion the impact of the
unconscious, an irrational type needs a stronger development of the
rational auxiliary function present in consciousness [and vice
versa].["General Description of the Types," ibid., par.
Attempts to assimilate the inferior function are usually accompanied by
a deterioration in the primary function. The thinking type can't write an
essay, the sensation type gets lost and forgets appointments, the
intuitive loses touch with possibilities, and the feeling type can't
decide what something's worth.
And yet it is necessary for the development of character that we
should allow the other side, the inferior function, to find expression.
We cannot in the long run allow one part of our personality to be cared
for symbiotically by another; for the moment when we might have need of
the other function may come at any time and find us unprepared. ["The Problem of the Attitude-Type," CW 7, par.
Inflation. A state of mind characterized by an exaggerated sense
of self-importance, often compensated by feelings of inferiority. (See
also mana-personality and negative inflation.)
whether positive or negative, is a symptom of psychological possession,
indicating the need to assimilate unconscious complexes or disidentify
from the self.
An inflated consciousness is always egocentric and conscious of
nothing but its own existence. It is incapable of learning from the
past, incapable of understanding contemporary events, and incapable of
drawing right conclusions about the future. It is hypnotized by itself
and therefore cannot be argued with. It inevitably dooms itself to
calamities that must strike it dead. Paradoxically enough, inflation is
a regression of consciousness into unconsciousness. This always happens
when consciousness takes too many unconscious contents upon itself and
loses the faculty of discrimination, the sine qua non of all
consciousness.["Epilogue," CW 12, par. 563.]
[Inflation] should not be interpreted as . . . conscious
self-aggrandizement. Such is far from being the rule. In general we are
not directly conscious of this condition at all, but can at best infer
its existence indirectly from the symptoms. These include the reactions
of our immediate environment. Inflation magnifies the blind spot in the
eye.[The Self," CW 9ii, par. 44.]
Instinct. An involuntary drive toward certain activities. (See
also archetype and archetypal image.)
All psychic processes whose energies are not under conscious control
are instinctive.[Definitions," CW 6, par. 765.]
Instincts in their original strength can render social adaptation
almost impossible.["The Transcendent Function," CW 8, par.
Instinct is not an isolated thing, nor can it be isolated in
practice. It always brings in its train archetypal contents of a
spiritual nature, which are at once its foundation and its limitation.
In other words, an instinct is always and inevitably coupled with
something like a philosophy of life, however archaic, unclear, and hazy
this may be. Instinct stimulates thought, and if a man does not think of
his own free will, then you get compulsive thinking, for the two poles
of the psyche, the physiological and the mental, are indissolubly
connected. ["Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life," CW
16, par. 185.]
Psychic processes which ordinarily are consciously controlled can
become instinctive when imbued with unconscious energy. This is liable to
occur when the level of consciousness is low, due to fatigue,
intoxication, depression, etc. Conversely, instincts can be modified
according to the extent that they are civilized and under con-scious
control, a process Jung called psychization.
An instinct which has undergone too much psychization can take its
revenge in the form of an autonomous complex. This is one of the chief
causes of neurosis.["Psychological Factors in Human
Behaviour," CW 8, par. 255.]
Too much of the animal distorts the civilized man, too much
civilization makes sick animals.[The Eros Theory," CW 7,
Jung identified five prominent groups of instinctive factors:
creativity, reflection, activity, sexuality and hunger. Hunger is a
primary instinct of self-preservation, perhaps the most fundamental of all
drives. Sexuality is a close second, particularly prone to
psychization, which makes it possible to divert its purely biological
energy into other channels. The urge to activity manifests in
travel, love of change, restlessness and play. Under reflection,
Jung included the religious urge and the search for meaning.
Creativity was for Jung in a class by itself. His descriptions of
it refer specifically to the impulse to create art.
Though we cannot classify it with a high degree of accuracy, the
creative instinct is something that deserves special mention. I do
not know if "instinct" is the correct word. We use the term "creative
instinct" because this factor behaves at least dynamically, like an
instinct. Like instinct it is compulsive, but it is not common, and it
is not a fixed and invariably inherited organization. Therefore I prefer
to designate the creative impulse as a psychic factor similar in nature
to instinct, having indeed a very close connection with the instincts,
but without being identical with any one of them. Its connections with
sexuality are a much discussed problem and, furthermore, it has much in
common with the drive to activity and the reflective instinct. But it
can also suppress them, or make them serve it to the point of the
self-destruction of the individual. Creation is as much destruction as
construction.["Psychological Factors in Human Behaviour,"
CW 8, par. 245.]
Jung also believed that true creativity could only be enhanced by the
Creative power is mightier than its possessor. If it is not so, then
it is a feeble thing, and given favourable conditions will nourish an
endearing talent, but no more. If, on the other hand, it is a neurosis,
it often takes only a word or a look for the illusion to go up in smoke.
. . . Disease has never yet fostered creative work; on the contrary, it
is the most formidable obstacle to creation. No breaking down of
repressions can ever destroy true creativeness, just as no analysis can
ever exhaust the unconscious.[Analytical Psychology and
Education," CW 17, par. 206.]
Instinct and archetype are a pair of opposites, inextricably linked and
therefore often difficult to tell apart.
Psychic processes seem to be balances of energy flowing between
spirit and instinct, though the question of whether a process is to be
described as spiritual or as instinctual remains shrouded in darkness.
Such evaluation or interpretation depends entirely upon the standpoint
or state of the conscious mind.[On the Nature of the
Psyche," CW 8, par. 407.]
When consciousness become overspiritualized, straying too far from its
instinctual foundation, self-regulating processes within the psyche become
active in an attempt to correct the balance. This is often signaled in
dreams by animal symbols, particularly snakes.
The snake is the representative of the world of instinct, especially
of those vital processes which are psychologically the least accessible
of all. Snake dreams always indicate a discrepancy between the attitude
of the conscious mind and instinct, the snake being a personification of
the threatening aspect of that conflict.[The Sacrifice,"
CW 5, par. 615.]
Introjection. A process of assimilation of object to
subject, the opposite of projection.
Introjection is a process of extraversion, since assimilation to the
object requires empathy and an investment of the object with libido. A
passive and an active introjection may be distinguished: transference
phenomena in the treatment of the neuroses belong to the former
category, and, in general, all cases where the object exercises a
compelling influence on the subject, while empathy as a process of
adaptation belongs to the latter category.[Definitions,"
CW 6, par. 768.]
Introspection. A process of reflection that focuses on
personal reactions, behavior patterns and attitudes. (See also
The difference between introspection and
introversion is that the latter refers to the direction in which energy
naturally moves, while the former refers to self-examination. Neither
introverts nor those with a well-developed thinking function have a
monopoly on introspection.
Introversion. A mode of psychological orientation where
the movement of energy is toward the inner world. (Compare
Everyone whose attitude is introverted thinks, feels, and acts in a
way that clearly demonstrates that the subject is the prime motivating
factor and that the object is of secondary importance. [
Ibid., par. 769.]
Always he has to prove that everything he does rests on his own
decisions and convictions, and never because he is influenced by anyone,
or desires to please or conciliate some person or opinion.["Psychological Types," CW 6, par. 893.]
An introverted consciousness can be well aware of external conditions,
but is not motivated by them. The extreme introvert responds primarily to
In a large gathering he feels lonely and lost. The more crowded it
is, the greater becomes his resistance. He is not in the least "with
it," and has no love of enthusiastic get-togethers. He is not a good
mixer. What he does, he does in his own way, barricading himself against
influences from outside. . . . Under normal conditions he is pessimistic
and worried, because the world and human beings are not in the least
good but crush him. . . .His own world is a safe harbour, a carefully
tended and walled-in garden, closed to the public and hidden from prying
eyes. His own company is the best.["Psychological
Typology," ibid., pars. 976f.]
Signs of introversion in a child are a reflective, thoughtful manner
and resistance to outside influences.
The child wants his own way, and under no circumstances will he
submit to an alien rule he cannot understand. When he asks questions, it
is not from curiosity or a desire to create a sensation, but because he
wants names, meanings, explanations to give him subjective protection
against the object.["Psychological Types," ibid., par.
The introverted attitude tends to devalue things and other persons, to
deny their importance. Hence, by way of compensation, extreme introversion
leads to an unconscious reinforcement of the object's influence. This
makes itself felt as a tie, with concomitant emotional reactions, to outer
circumstances or another person.
The individual's freedom of mind is fettered by the ignominy of his
financial dependence, his freedom of action trembles in the face of
public opinion, his moral superiority collapses in a morass of inferior
relationships, and his desire to dominate ends in a pitiful craving to
be loved. It is now the unconscious that takes care of the relation to
the object, and it does so in a way that is calculated to bring the
illusion of power and the fantasy of superiority to utter ruin.["General Description of the Types," ibid., par.
A person in this situation can be worn out from fruitless attempts to
impose his or her will.
These efforts are constantly being frustrated by the overwhelming
impressions received from the object. It continually imposes itself on
him against his will, it arouses in him the most disagreeable and
intractable affects and persecutes him at every step. A tremendous inner
struggle is needed all the time in order to "keep going." The typical
form his neurosis takes is psychasthenia, a malady characterized on the
one hand by extreme sensitivity and on the other by great proneness to
exhaustion and chronic fatigue.[
In less extreme cases, introverts are simply more conservative than
not, preferring the familiar surroundings of home and intimate times with
a few close friends; they husband their energy and would rather stay put
than go from place to place. Their best work is done on their own
resources, on their own initiative and in their own way.
His retreat into himself is not a final renunciation of the world,
but a search for quietude, where alone it is possible for him to make
his contribution to the life of the community.[Psychological Typology," ibid., par.
Intuition. The psychic function that perceives possibilities
inherent in the present. (Compare sensation.)
Intuition gives outlook and insight; it revels in the garden of
magical possibilities as if they were real.[The Psychology
of the Transference," CW 16, par. 492.]
In Jung's model of typology, intuition, like sensation, is an
irrational function because its apprehension of the world is based on the
perception of given facts. Unlike sensation, however, it perceives via the
unconscious and is not dependent on concrete reality.
In intuition a content presents itself whole and complete, without
our being able to explain or discover how this content came into
existence. Intuition is a kind of instinctive apprehension, no matter of
what contents. . . . Intuitive knowledge possesses an intrinsic
certainty and conviction.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
Intuition may receive information from within (for instance, as a flash
of insight of unknown origin), or be stimulated by what is going on in
The first is a perception of unconscious psychic data originating in
the subject, the second is a perception of data dependent on subliminal
perceptions of the object and on the feelings and thoughts they
evoke.[Ibid., par. 771.]
Irrational. Not grounded in reason. (Compare
Jung pointed out that elementary existential facts fall into this
category-for instance, that the earth has a moon, that chlorine is an
element or that water freezes at a certain temperature and reaches its
greatest density at four degrees centigrade-as does chance. They are
irrational not because they are illogical, but because they are beyond
In Jung's model of typology, the psychological functions of
intuition and sensation are described as irrational.
Both intuition and sensation are functions that find fulfilment in
the absolute perception of the flux of events. Hence, by their
very nature, they will react to every possible occurrence and be attuned
to the absolutely contingent, and must therefore lack all rational
direction. For this reason I call them irrational functions, as opposed
to thinking and feeling, which find fulfilment only when they are in
complete harmony with the laws of reason.[Ibid., pars.
Merely because [irrational types] subordinate judgment to perception,
it would be quite wrong to regard them as "unreasonable." It wouldbe
truer to say that they are in the highest degree empirical. They
base themselves entirely on experience. ["General
Description of the Types," ibid., par. 616.]
Kore. In Greek mythology, a term for the personification of
feminine innocence (e.g., Persephone); psychologically, in man or wom-an,
it refers to an archetypal image of potential renewal.
phenomenology of the Kore is essentially bipolar (as is that of any
archetype), associated with the mother-maiden dyad. When observed in the
products of a woman's unconscious, it is an image of the supraordinate
personality or self. In a man, the Kore is an aspect of the anima and
partakes in all the symbolism attached to his inner personality.
As a matter of practical observation, the Kore often appears in woman
as an unknown young girl . . . . The maiden's helplessness
exposes her to all sorts of dangers, for instance of being
devoured by reptiles or ritually slaughtered like a beast of sacrifice.
Often there are bloody, cruel, and even obscene orgies to which the
innocent child falls victim. Sometimes it is a true nekyia, a
descent into Hades and a quest for the "treasure hard to attain,"
occasionally connected with orgiastic sexual rites or offerings of
menstrual blood to the moon. Oddly enough, the various tortures and
obscenities are carried out by an "Earth Mother." . . . The maiden who
crops up in case histories differs not inconsiderably from the vaguely
flower-like Kore in that the modern figure is more sharply delineated
and not nearly so "unconscious."[The Psychological Aspects
of the Kore," CW 9i, par. 311.]
Demeter and Kore, mother and daughter, extend the feminine
consciousness both upwards and downwards. They add an "older and
younger," "stronger and weaker" dimension to it and widen out the
narrowly limited conscious mind bound in space and time, giving it
intimations of a greater and more comprehensive personality which has a
share in the eternal course of things. . . . We could therefore say that
every mother contains her daughter in herself and every daughter her
mother, and that every woman extends backwards into her mother and
forwards into her daughter. . . . The conscious experience of these ties
produces the feeling that her life is spread out over generations-the
first step towards the immediate experience and conviction of being
outside time, which brings with it a feeling of immortality.[ Ibid., par. 316.]
Libido. Psychic energy in general. (See also final.)
Libido can never be apprehended except in a definite form; that is to
say, it is identical with fantasy-images. And we can only release it
from the grip of the unconscious by bringing up the corresponding
fantasy-images.[The Technique of Differentiation," CW 7,
Jung specifically distanced his concept of libido from that of Freud,
for whom it had a predominantly sexual meaning.
All psychological phenomena can be considered as manifestations of
energy, in the same way that all physical phenomena have been understood
as energic manifestations ever since Robert Mayer discovered the law of
the conservation of energy. Subjectively and psychologically, this
energy is conceived as desire. I call it libido, using the word
in its original sense, which is by no means only sexual.[Psychoanalysis and Neurosis," CW 4, par. 567.]
[Libido] denotes a desire or impulse which is unchecked by any kind
of authority, moral or otherwise. Libido is appetite in its natural
state. From the genetic point of view it is bodily needs like hunger,
thirst, sleep, and sex, and emotional states or affects, which
constitute the essence of libido.["The Concept of Libido,"
CW 5, par. 194.]
In line with his belief that the psyche is a self-regulating system,
Jung associated libido with intentionality. It "knows" where it ought to
go for the overall health of the psyche.
The libido has, as it were, a natural penchant: it is like water,
which must have a gradient if it is to flow.[Symbols of
the Mother and of Rebirth," ibid., par. 337.]
Where there is a lack of libido (depression), it has backed up
(re-gressed) in order to stir up unconscious contents, the aim being to
compensate the attitudes of consciousness. What little energy is left
resists being applied in a consciously chosen direction.
It does not lie in our power to transfer "disposable" energy at will
to a rationally chosen object. The same is true in general of the
apparently disposable energy which is disengaged when we have destroyed
its unserviceable forms through the corrosive of reductive analysis.
[It] can at best be applied voluntarily for only a short time. But in
most cases it refuses to seize hold, for any length of time, of the
possibilities rationally presented to it. Psychic energy is a very
fastidious thing which insists on fulfilment of its own conditions.
However much energy may be present, we cannot make it serviceable until
we have succeeded in finding the right gradient.[The
Problem of the Attitude-Type," CW 7, par. 76]
The analytic task in such a situation is to discover the natural
gradient of the person's energy.
What is it, at this moment and in this individual, that represents
the natural urge of life? That is the question.[The
Structure of the Unconscious," ibid., par. 488.]
Logos. The principle of logic and structure, traditionally
associated with spirit, the father world and the God-image. (See also
animus and Eros.)
There is no consciousness without discrimination of opposites. This
is the paternal principle, the Logos, which eternally struggles to
extricate itself from the primal warmth and primal darkness of the
maternal womb; in a word, from unconsciousness.["Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype," CW 9i,
In Jung's earlier writings, he intuitively equated masculine
consciousness with the concept of Logos and feminine consciousness with
that of Eros. Either one could be dominant in a particular man or woman,
due to the contrasexual complexes.
By Logos I meant discrimination, judgment, insight, and by Eros I
meant the capacity to relate. I regarded both concepts as intuitive
ideas which cannot be defined accurately or exhaustively. From the
scientific point of view this is regrettable, but from a practical one
it has its value, since the two concepts mark out a field of experience
which it is equally difficult to define.
As we can hardly ever
make a psychological proposition without immediately having to reverse
it, instances to the contrary leap to the eye at once: men who care
nothing for discrimination, judgment, and insight, and women who display
an almost excessively masculine proficiency in this respect. . . .
Wherever this exists, we find a forcible intrusion of the unconscious, a
corresponding exclusion of the consciousness specific to either sex,
predominance of the shadow and of contrasexuality.[The
Personification of the Opposites," CW 14, pars.
In his later writing on alchemy, Jung described Logos and Eros as
psychologically equivalent to solar and lunar consciousness, arche-typal
ideas analogous to the Eastern concepts of yang and yin-different
qualities of energy. This did not change his view that Eros was more
"specific" to feminine consciousness and Logos to masculine. Hence he
attributed Eros in a man to the influence of the anima, and Logos in a
woman to that of the animus.
In a man it is the lunar anima, in a woman the solar animus, that
influences consciousness in the highest degree. Even if a man is often
unaware of his own anima-possession, he has, understandably enough, all
the more vivid an impression of the animus-possession of
his wife, and vice versa. [Ibid., par. 225.]
Loss of soul. A concept borrowed from anthropology, referring
psychologically to a state of general malaise.
The peculiar condition covered by this term is accounted for in the
mind of the primitive by the supposition that a soul has gone off, just
like a dog that runs away from his master overnight. It is then the task
of the medicine man to fetch the fugitive back. . . . Some-thing similar
can happen to civilized man, only he does not describe it as "loss of
soul" but as an "abaissement du niveau mental."[Concerning
Rebirth," CW 9i, par. 213.]
Mana-personality. A personified archetypal image of a
The mana-personality is a dominant of the collective unconscious, the
well-known archetype of the mighty man in the form of hero, chief,
magician, medicine-man, saint, the ruler of men and spirits, the friend
of God.[The Mana-Personality," CW 7, par. 377.]
Historically, the mana-personality evolves into the hero and the
godlike being, whose earthly form is the priest. How very much the
doctor is still mana is the whole plaint of the analyst![Ibid., par. 389.]
Mana is a Melanesian word referring to a bewitching or numinous
quality in gods and sacred objects. A mana-personality embodies this
magical power. In individual psychology, Jung used it to describe the
inflationary effect of assimilating autonomous unconscious contents,
particularly those associated with anima and animus.
The ego has appropriated something that does not belong to it. But
how has it appropriated the mana? If it was really the ego that
conquered the anima, then the mana does indeed belong to it, and it
would be correct to conclude that one has become important. But why does
not this importance, the mana, work upon others? . . . It does not work
because one has not in fact become important, but has merely become
adulterated with an archetype, another unconscious figure. Hence we must
conclude that the ego never conquered the anima at all and therefore has
not acquired the mana. All that has happened is a new adulteration.
[ Ibid., par. 380.]
Mandala. See quaternity and temenos.
Masculine. See animus and Logos.
Mechanistic. See causal, objective level and
Meditation. A technique of focused introspection.
Jung distinguished between meditation practiced in the East or in
traditional Western religious exercises, and its use as a tool for
self-understanding, particularly in the realization of projections.
If the ancient art of meditation is practised at all today, it is
practised only in religious or philosophical circles, where a theme is
subjectively chosen by the meditant or prescribed by an instructor, as
in the Ignatian Exercitia or in certain theosophical exercises
that developed under Indian influence. These methods are of value only
for increasing concentration and consolidating consciousness, but have
no significance as regards affecting a synthesis of the personality. On
the contrary, their purpose is to shield consciousness from the
unconscious and to suppress it.[The Conjunction," CW 14,
When meditation is concerned with the objective products of the
unconscious that reach consciousness spontaneously, it unites the
conscious with contents that proceed not from a conscious causal chain
but from an essentially unconscious process. . . . Part of the
unconscious contents is projected, but the projection as such is not
recognized. Meditation or critical introspection and objective
investigation of the object are needed in order to establish the
existence of projections. If the individual is to take stock of himself
it is essential that his projections should be recognized, because they
falsify the nature of the object and besides this contain items which
belong to his own personality and should be integrated with it.[ Ibid., par. 710.]
Mother complex. A group of feeling-toned ideas associated with
the experience and image of mother.
The mother complex is a
potentially active component of everyone's psyche, informed first of all
by experience of the personal mother, then by significant contact with
other women and by collective assumptions. The constellation of a mother
complex has differing effects according to whether it appears in a son or
Typical effects on the son are homosexuality and Don Juanism, and
sometimes also impotence [though here the father complex also plays a
part]. In homosexuality, the son's entire heterosexuality is tied to the
mother in an unconscious form; in Don Juanism, he unconsciously seeks
his mother in every woman he meets.[Psychological Aspects
of the Mother Archetype," CW 9i, par. 162.]
A man's mother complex is influenced by the contrasexual complex, the
anima. To the extent that a man establishes a good relationship with his
inner woman (instead of being possessed by her), even a negative mother
complex may have positive effects.
[He] may have a finely differentiated Eros instead of, or in addition
to, homosexuality. . . . This gives him a great capacity for friendship,
which often creates ties of astonishing tenderness between men and may
even rescue friendship between the sexes from the limbo of the
impossible. . . .In the same way, what in its negative aspect is Don
Juanism can appear positively as bold and resolute manliness; ambitious
striving after the highest goals; opposition to all stupidity,
narrow-mindedness, injustice, and laziness; willingness to make
sacrifices for what is regarded as right, sometimes bordering on
heroism; perseverance, inflexibility and toughness of will; a curiosity
that does not shrink even from the riddles of the universe; and finally,
a revolutionary spirit which strives to put a new face upon the
world.[Ibid., pars 164f.]
In the daughter, the effect of the mother complex ranges from
stimulation of the feminine instinct to its inhibition. In the first case,
the preponderance of instinct makes the woman unconscious of her own
The exaggeration of the feminine side means an intensification of all
female instincts, above all the maternal instinct. The negative aspect
is seen in the woman whose only goal is childbirth. To her the husband
is . . . first and foremost the instrument of procreation, and she
regards him merely as an object to be looked after, along with children,
poor relations, cats, dogs, and household furniture. [Ibid., par. 167.]
In the second case, the feminine instinct is inhibited or wiped out
As a substitute, an overdeveloped Eros results, and this almost
invariably leads to an unconscious incestuous relationship with the
father. The intensified Eros places an abnormal emphasis on the
personality of others. Jealousy of the mother and the desire to outdo
her become the leitmotifs of subsequent undertakings.[Ibid., par. 168.]
Alternatively, the inhibition of the feminine instinct may lead a woman
to identify with her mother. She is then unconscious of both her own
maternal instinct and her Eros, which are then projected onto the
As a sort of superwoman (admired involuntarily by the daughter), the
mother lives out for her beforehand all that the girl might have lived
for herself. She is content to cling to her mother in selfless devotion,
while at the same time unconsciously striving, almost against her will,
to tyrannize over her, naturally under the mask of complete loyalty and
devotion. The daughter leads a shadow-existence, often visibly sucked
dry by her mother, and she prolongs her mother's life by a sort of
continuous blood transfusion.[ Ibid., par.
Because of their apparent "emptiness," these women are good hooks for
men's projections. As devoted and self-sacrificing wives, they often
project their own unconscious gifts onto their husbands.
And then we have the spectacle of a totally insignificant man who
seemed to have no chance whatsoever suddenly soaring as if on a magic
carpet to the highest summits of achievement. [ Ibid.,
In Jung's view, these three extreme types are linked together by many
intermediate stages, the most important being where there is an
overwhelming resistance to the mother and all she stands for.
It is the supreme example of the negative mother-complex. The motto
of this type is: Anything, so long as it is not like Mother! . . . All
instinctive processes meet with unexpected difficulties; either
sexuality does not function properly, or the children are unwanted, or
maternal duties seem unbearable, or the demands of marital life are
responded to with impatience and irritation.[Ibid., par.
Such a woman often excels in Logos activities, where her mother has no
place. If she can overcome her merely reactive attitude toward reality,
she may later in life come to a deeper appreciation of her femininity.
Thanks to her lucidity, objectivity, and masculinity, a woman of this
type is frequently found in important positions in which her tardily
discovered maternal quality, guided by a cool intelligence, exerts a most
beneficial influence. This rare combination of womanliness and masculine
understanding proves valuable in the realm of intimate relationships as
well as in practical matters. [Ibid., par. 186.]
At the core of any mother complex is the mother archetype, which means
that behind emotional associations with the personal mother, both in men
and in women, there is a collective image of nourishment and security on
the one hand (the positive mother), and devouring possessiveness on the
other (the negative mother).
Motif. See archetypal image.
Myth. An involuntary collective statement based on an
unconscious psychic experience.
The primitive mentality does not invent myths, it
experiences them. Myths are original revelations of the
preconscious psyche . . . . Many of these unconscious processes may be
indirectly occasioned by consciousness, but never by conscious choice.
Others appear to arise spontaneously, that is to say, from no
discernible or demonstrable conscious cause.["The
Psychology of the Child Archetype," ibid., par.
Negative inflation. An unrealistically low opinion of oneself,
due to identification with the negative side of the shadow. (See
Whenever a sense of moral inferiority appears, it indicates not only
a need to assimilate an unconscious component, but also the possibility
of such assimilation.[The Personal and the Collective
Unconscious," CW 7, par. 218.]
Neurosis. A psychological crisis due to a state of disunity with
oneself, or, more formally, a mild dissociation of the personality
due to the activation of complexes. (See also adaptation,
conflict and self-regulation of the psyche.)
Any incompatibility of character can cause dissociation, and too
great a split between the thinking and the feeling function, for
instance, is already a slight neurosis. When you are not quite at one
with yourself . . . you are approaching a neurotic condition.[The Tavistock Lectures," CW 18, par. 383.]
Every neurosis is characterized by dissociation and conflict,
contains complexes, and shows traces of regression and abaissement.[Analytical Psychology and Education," CW 17, par.
Jung's view was that an outbreak of neurosis is purposeful, an
opportunity to become conscious of who we are as opposed to who we think
we are. By working through the symptoms that invariably accompany
neurosis-anxiety, fear, depression, guilt and particularly conflict-we
become aware of our limitations and discover our true strengths.
In many cases we have to say, "Thank heaven he could make up his mind
to be neurotic." Neurosis is really an attempt at self-cure. . . . It is
an attempt of the self-regulating psychic system to restore the balance,
in no way different from the function of dreams-only rather more
forceful and drastic.[The Tavistock Lectures," CW 18, par.
I myself have known more than one person who owed his entire
usefulness and reason for existence to a neurosis, which prevented all
the worst follies in his life and forced him to a mode of living that
developed his valuable potentialities. These might have been stifled had
not the neurosis, with iron grip, held him to the place where he
belonged. ["The Problem of the Attitude-Type," CW 7, par.
In any breakdown in conscious functioning, energy regresses and
unconscious contents are activated in an attempt to compensate the
one-sidedness of consciousness.
Neuroses, like all illnesses, are symptoms of maladjustment. Be-cause
of some obstacle-a constitutional weakness or defect, wrong education,
bad experiences, an unsuitable attitude, etc.-one shrinks from the
difficulties which life brings and thus finds oneself back in the world
of the infant. The unconscious compensates this regression by producing
symbols which, when understood objectively, that is, by means of
comparative research, reactivate general ideas that underlie all such
natural systems of thought. In this way a change of attitude is brought
about which bridges the dissociation between man as he is and man as he
ought to be. ["The Philosophical Tree," CW 13, par.
Jung called his attitude toward neurosis energic or final since it was
based on the potential progression of energy rather than causal or
mechanistic reasons for its regression. The two views are not incompatible
but rather complementary: the mechanistic approach looks to the past for
the cause of psychic discomfort in the present; Jung focused on the
present with an eye to future possibilities.
I no longer seek the cause of a neurosis in the past, but in the
present. I ask, what is the necessary task which the patient will not
accomplish?["Psychoanalysis and Neurosis," CW4,
In psychic disturbances it is by no means sufficient in all cases
merely to bring the supposed or real causes to consciousness. The
treatment involves the integration of contents that have become
dissociated from consciousness.[The Philosophical Tree,"
CW 13, par. 464.]
Jung did not dispute Freudian theory that Oedipal fixations can
manifest as neurosis in later life. He acknowledged that certain periods
in life, and particularly infancy, often have a permanent and determining
influence on the personality. But he found this to be an insufficient
explanation for those cases in which there was no trace of neurosis until
the time of the breakdown.
Freud's sexual theory of neurosis is grounded on a true and factual
principle. But it makes the mistake of being one-sided and exclusive;
also it commits the imprudence of trying to lay hold of unconfinable
Eros with the crude terminology of sex. In this respect Freud is a
typical representative of the materialistic epoch, whose hope it was to
solve the world riddle in a test-tube.["The Eros Theory,"
CW 7, par. 33.]
If the fixation were indeed real [i.e., the primary cause] we should
expect to find its influence constant; in other words, a neurosis
lasting throughout life. This is obviously not the case. The
psychological determination of a neurosis is only partly due to an early
infantile predisposition; it must be due to some cause in the present as
well. And if we carefully examine the kind of infantile fantasies and
occurrences to which the neurotic is attached, we shall be obliged to
agree that there is nothing in them that is specifically neurotic.
Normal individuals have pretty much the same inner and outer
experiences, and may be attached to them to an astonishing degree
without developing a neurosis.[Psychoanalysis and
Neurosis," CW4, par. 564.]
What then determines why one person becomes neurotic while another, in
similar circumstances, does not? Jung's answer is that the individual
psyche knows both its limits and its potential. If the former are being
exceeded, or the latter not realized, a breakdown occurs. The psyche
itself acts to correct the situation.
There are vast masses of the population who, despite their notorious
unconsciousness, never get anywhere near a neurosis. The few who are
smitten by such a fate are really persons of the "higher" type who, for
one reason or another, have remained too long on a primitive level.
Their nature does not in the long run tolerate persistence in what is
for them an unnatural torpor. As a result of their narrow conscious
outlook and their cramped existence they save energy; bit by bit it
accumulates in the unconscious and finally explodes in the form of a
more or less acute neurosis.[The Function of the
Unconscious," CW 7, par. 291.]
Jung's view of neurosis differs radically from the classical reductive
approach, but it does not substantially change what happens in analysis.
Activated fantasies still have to be brought to light, because the energy
needed for life is attached to them. The object, however, is not to reveal
a supposed root cause of the neurosis but to establish a connection
between consciousness and the unconscious that will result in the renewed
progression of energy.
Night sea journey. An archetypal motif in mythology,
psychologically associated with depression and the loss of energy
characteristic of neurosis.
The night sea journey is a kind of descensus ad inferos--a
descent into Hades and a journey to the land of ghosts somewhere beyond
this world, beyond consciousness, hence an immersion in the
unconscious.["The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16,
Mythologically, the night sea journey motif usually involves being
swallowed by a dragon or sea monster. It is also represented by
imprisonment or crucifixion, dismemberment or abduction, experiences
traditionally weathered by sun-gods and heroes: Gilgamesh, Osiris, Christ,
Dante, Odysseus, Aeneas. In the language of the mystics it is the dark
night of the soul.
Jung interpreted such legends symbolically, as
illustrations of the regressive movement of energy in an outbreak of
neurosis and its potential progression.
The hero is the symbolical exponent of the movement of libido. Entry
into the dragon is the regressive direction, and the journey to the East
(the "night sea journey") with its attendant events symbolizes the
effort to adapt to the conditions of the psychic inner world. The
complete swallowing up and disappearance of the hero in the belly of the
dragon represents the complete withdrawal of interest from the outer
world. The overcoming of the monster from within is the achievement of
adaptation to the conditions of the inner world, and the emergence
("slipping out") of the hero from the monster's belly with the help of a
bird, which happens at the moment of sunrise, symbolizes the
recommencement of progression.["On Psychic Energy," CW 8,
All the night sea journey myths derive from the perceived behavior of
the sun, which, in Jung's lyrical image, "sails over the sea like an
immortal god who every evening is immersed in the maternal waters and is
born anew in the morning.["Symbols of the Mother and of
Rebirth," CW 5, par. 306.] The sun going down, analogous to the
loss of energy in a depression, is the necessary prelude to rebirth.
Cleansed in the healing waters (the unconscious), the sun
(ego-consciousness) lives again.
Nigredo. An alchemical term, corresponding psychologically to
the mental disorientation that typically arises in the process of
assimilating unconscious contents, particularly aspects of the
Self-knowledge is an adventure that carries us unexpectedly far and
deep. Even a moderately comprehensive knowledge of the shadow can cause
a good deal of confusion and mental darkness, since it gives rise to
personality problems which one had never remotely imagined before. For
this reason alone we can understand why the alchemists called their
nigredo melancholia, "a black blacker than black," night, an
affliction of the soul, confusion, etc., or, more pointedly, the "black
raven." For us the raven seems only a funny allegory, but for the
medieval adept it was . . . a well-known allegory of the devil.[The Conjunction," CW 14, par. 741.]
Numinous. Descriptive of persons, things or situations having a
deep emotional resonance, psychologically associated with experiences of
Numinous, like numinosity, comes from Latin numinosum,
referring to a dynamic agency or effect independent of the conscious
Religious teaching as well as the consensus gentium always and
everywhere explain this experience as being due to a cause external to
the individual. The numinosum is either a quality belonging to a
visible object or the influence of an invisible presence that causes a
peculiar alteration of consciousness.[Psychology and Religion," CW 11,
Objectivation. A process of differentiating the ego from
both other persons and contents of the unconscious. (See also active
Its goal is to detach consciousness from the object so that the
individual no longer places the guarantee of his happiness, or of his
life even, in factors outside himself, whether they be persons, ideas,
or circumstances, but comes to realize that everything depends on
whether he holds the treasure or not. If the possession of that gold is
realized, then the centre of gravity is in the individual and no
longer in an object on which he depends.[The Tavistock
Lectures," CW 18, par. 377.]
Jung pointed out that the "treasure" has traditionally been projected
onto sacred figures, but that many modern individuals no longer find
satisfaction in such historical symbols. They therefore need to find an
individual method to "give shape" to the personal complexes and archetypal
For they have to take on form, they have to live their characteristic
life, otherwise the individual is severed from the basic function of the
psyche [compensation], and then he is neurotic, he is disorientated and
in conflict with himself. But if he is able to objectify the impersonal
images and relate to them, he is in touch with that vital psychological
function which from the dawn of consciousness has been taken care of by
religion.[Ibid., par. 378.]
Objective level. An approach to understanding the meaning of
images in dreams and fantasies by reference to persons or situations in
the outside world. (See also reductive; compare constructive
and subjective level.)
Freud's interpretation of dreams is almost entirely on the objective
level, since the dream wishes refer to real objects, or to sexual
processes which fall within the physiological, extra-psychological
sphere. [Definitions," CW 6, par.
Although Jung pioneered the teaching of dream interpretation on the
subjective level, where symbolic meaning is paramount, he also recognized
the value of the objective approach.
Enlightening as interpretation on the subjective level may be . . .
it may be entirely worthless when a vitally important relationship is
the content and cause of the conflict [behind the dream]. Here the
dream-figure must be related to the real object. The criterion can
always be discovered from the conscious material. [General
Aspects of Dream Psychology," CW 8, par. 515.]
Objective psyche. See collective unconscious.
Opposites. Psychologically, the ego and the unconscious. (See
also compensation, conflict, progression and transcendent
There is no consciousness without discrimination of opposites.["Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype," CW 9i, par.
There is no form of human tragedy that does not in some measure
proceed from [the] conflict between the ego and the unconscious.["Analytical Psychology and Weltanschauung," CW 8, par.
Whatever attitude exists in the conscious mind, and whichever
psychological function is dominant, the opposite is in the unconscious.
This situation seldom precipitates a crisis in the first half of life. But
for older people who reach an impasse, characterized by a one-sided
conscious attitude and the blockage of energy, it is necessary to bring to
light psychic contents that have been repressed.
The repressed content must be made conscious so as to produce a
tension of opposites, without which no forward movement is possible. The
conscious mind is on top, the shadow underneath, and just as high always
longs for low and hot for cold, so all consciousness, perhaps without
being aware of it, seeks its unconscious opposite, lacking which it is
doomed to stagnation, congestion, and ossification. Life is born only of
the spark of opposites.[The Problem of the Attitude-Type,"
CW 7, par. 78.]
This in turn activates the process of compensation, which leads to an
irrational "third," the transcendent function.
Out of [the] collision of opposites the unconscious psyche always
creates a third thing of an irrational nature, which the conscious mind
neither expects nor understands. It presents itself in a form that is
neither a straight "yes" nor a straight "no."[The
Psychology of the Child Archetype," CW 9i, par. 285.The Psychology of
the Child Archetype," CW 9i, par. 285.]
Jung explained the potential renewal of the personality in terms of the
principle of entropy in physics, according to which transformations of
energy in a relatively closed system take place, and are only possible, as
a result of differences in intensity.
Psychologically, we can see this process at work in the development
of a lasting and relatively unchanging attitude. After violent
oscillations at the beginning the opposites equalize one another, and
gradually a new attitude develops, the final stability of which is the
greater in proportion to the magnitude of the initial differences. The
greater the tension between the pairs of opposites, the greater will be
the energy that comes from them . . . [and] the less chance is there of
subsequent disturbances which might arise from friction with material
not previously constellated.["On Psychic Energy," CW 8,
Some degree of tension between consciousness and the unconsciousness is
both unavoidable and necessary. The aim of analysis is therefore not to
eliminate the tension but rather to understand the role it plays in the
self-regulation of the psyche. Moreover, the assimilation of unconscious
contents results in the ego becoming responsible for what was previously
unconscious. There is thus no question of anyone ever being completely at
The united personality will never quite lose the painful sense of
innate discord. Complete redemption from the sufferings of this world is
and must remain an illusion. Christ's earthly life likewise ended, not
in complacent bliss, but on the cross.["The Psychology of
the Transference," CW 16, par. 400.]
Jung further believed that anyone who attempts to deal with the problem
of the opposites on a personal level is making a significant contribution
toward world peace.
The psychological rule says that when an inner situation is not made
conscious, it happens outside, as fate. That is to say, when the
individual remains undivided and does not become conscious of his inner
opposite, the world must perforce act out the conflict and be torn into
opposing halves.[Christ, A Symbol of the Self," CW 9ii,
Orientation. A term used to indicate the general principle
governing a personal attitude or viewpoint.
psychological orientation determines how one sees and interprets reality.
In Jung's model of typology, a thinking attitude is oriented by the
principle of logic; a sensation attitude is oriented by the direct
perception of concrete facts; intuition orients itself to future
possibilities; and feeling is governed by subjective worth. Each of these
attitudes may operate in an introverted or extraverted way.
Parental complex. A group of emotionally charged images and
ideas associated with the parents. (See also incest.)
that the numinosity surrounding the personal parents, apparent in their
more or less magical influence, was to a large extent due to an archetypal
image of the primordial parents resident in every psyche.
The importance that modern psychology attaches to the "parental
complex" is a direct continuation of primitive man's experience of the
dangerous power of the ancestral spirits. Even the error of judgment
which leads him unthinkingly to assume that the spirits are realities of
the external world is carried on in our assumption (which is only
partially correct) that the real parents are responsible for the
parental complex. In the old trauma theory of Freudian psychoanalysis,
and in other quarters as well, this assumption even passed for a
scientific explanation. (It was in order to avoid this confusion that I
advocated the term "parental imago.")[The Function of the
Unconscious," CW 7, par. 293.]
The imago of the parents is composed of both the image created in the
individual psyche from the experience of the personal parents and
collective elements already present.
The image is unconsciously projected, and when the parents die, the
projected image goes on working as though it were a spirit existing on
its own. The primitive then speaks of parental spirits who return by
night (revenants), while the modern man calls it a father or mother
complex. [ Ibid., par. 294.]
So long as a positive or negative resemblance to the parents is the
deciding factor in a love choice, the release from the parental imago,
and hence from childhood, is not complete.[Mind and
Earth," CW 10, par. 74].
Participation mystique. A term derived from anthropology and the
study of primitive psychology, denoting a mystical connection, or
identity, between subject and object. (See also archaic, identification
[Participation mystique] consists in the fact that the subject cannot
clearly distinguish himself from the object but is bound to it by a
direct relationship which amounts to partial identity. . . . Among
civilized peoples it usually occurs between persons, seldom between a
person and a thing. In the first case it is a transference relationship
. . . . In the second case there is a similar influence on the part of
the thing, or else an identification with a thing or the idea of a
thing.[Definitions," CW 6, par. 781.]
[Identity] is a characteristic of the primitive mentality and the
real foundation of participation mystique, which is nothing but a
relic of the original non-differentiation of subject and object, and
hence of the primordial unconscious state. It is also a characteristic
of the mental state of early infancy, and, finally, of the unconscious
of the civilized adult.[Ibid., par.
Persona. The "I," usually ideal aspects of ourselves, that we
present to the outside world.
The persona is . . . a functional complex that comes into existence
for reasons of adaptation or personal convenience. [Ibid.,
The persona is that which in reality one is not, but which oneself as
well as others think one is.["Concerning Rebirth," CW 9i,
Originally the word persona meant a mask worn by actors to indicate the
role they played. On this level, it is both a protective covering and an
asset in mixing with other people. Civilized society depends on
interactions between people through the persona.
There are indeed people who lack a developed persona . . . blundering
from one social solecism to the next, perfectly harmless and innocent,
soulful bores or appealing children, or, if they are women, spectral
Cassandras dreaded for their tactlessness, eternally misunderstood,
never knowing what they are about, always taking forgiveness for
granted, blind to the world, hopeless dreamers. From them we can see how
a neglected persona works.["Anima and Animus," CW 7, par.
Before the persona has been differentiated from the ego, the persona is
experienced as individuality. In fact, as a social identity on the one
hand and an ideal image on the other, there is little individual about
It is, as its name implies, only a mask of the collective psyche, a
mask that feigns individuality, making others and oneself believe that
one is individual, whereas one is simply acting a role through which the
collective psyche speaks.
When we analyse the persona we strip off
the mask, and discover that what seemed to be individual is at bottom
collective; in other words, that the persona was only a mask of the
collective psyche. Fundamentally the persona is nothing real: it is a
compromise between individual and society as to what a man should appear
to be. He takes a name, earns a title, exercises a function, he is this
or that. In a certain sense all this is real, yet in relation to the
essential individuality of the person concerned it is only a secondary
reality, a compromise formation, in making which others often have a
greater share than he. ["The Persona as a Segment of the
Collective Psyche," ibid., pars. 245f.]
A psychological understanding of the persona as a function of
relationship to the outside world makes it possible to assume and drop one
at will. But by rewarding a particular persona, the outside world invites
identification with it. Money, respect and power come to those who can
perform single-mindedly and well in a social role. From being a useful
convenience, therefore, the persona may become a trap and a source of
A man cannot get rid of himself in favour of an artificial
personality without punishment. Even the attempt to do so brings on, in
all ordinary cases, unconscious reactions in the form of bad moods,
affects, phobias, obsessive ideas, backsliding vices, etc. The social
"strong man" is in his private life often a mere child where his own
states of feeling are concerned.["Anima and Animus,"
ibid., par. 307. ]
The demands of propriety and good manners are an added inducement to
assume a becoming mask. What goes on behind the mask is then called
"private life." This painfully familiar division of consciousness into
two figures, often preposterously different, is an incisive
psychological operation that is bound to have repercussions on the
unconscious.[Ibid., par. 305.]
Among the consequences of identifying with a persona are: we lose sight
of who we are without a protective covering; our reactions are
predetermined by collective expectations (we do and think and feel what
our persona "should" do, think and feel); those close to us complain of
our emotional distance; and we cannot imagine life without it.
the extent that ego-consciousness is identified with the persona, the
neglected inner life (personified in the shadow and anima or animus) is
activated in compensation. The consequences, experienced in symptoms
characteristic of neurosis, can stimulate the process of
There is, after all, something individual in the peculiar choice and
delineation of the persona, and . . . despite the exclusive identity of
the ego-consciousness with the persona the unconscious self, one's real
individuality, is always present and makes itself felt indirectly if not
directly. Although the ego-consciousness is at first identical with the
persona-that compromise role in which we parade before the community-yet
the unconscious self can never be repressed to the point of extinction.
Its influence is chiefly manifest in the special nature of the
contrasting and compensating contents of the unconscious. The purely
personal attitude of the conscious mind evokes reactions on the part of
the unconscious, and these, together with personal repressions, contain
the seeds of individual development.[The Persona as a
Segment of the Collective Psyche," ibid., par.
Personal unconscious. The personal layer of the
unconscious, distinct from the collective unconscious.
The personal unconscious contains lost memories, painful ideas that
are repressed (i.e., forgotten on purpose), subliminal perceptions, by
which are meant sense-perceptions that were not strong enough to reach
consciousness, and finally, contents that are not yet ripe for
consciousness.[The Personal and the Collective
Unconscious," ibid., par. 103.]
Personality. Aspects of the soul as it functions in the world.
(See also individuality.)
For the development of personality, differentiation from collective
values, particularly those embodied in and adhered to by the persona, is
A change from one milieu to another brings about a striking
alteration of personality, and on each occasion a clearly defined
character emerges that is noticeably different from the previous one. .
. . The social character is oriented on the one hand by the expectations
and demands of society, and on the other by the social aims and
aspirations of the individual. The domestic character is, as a rule,
moulded by emotional demands and an easy-going acquiescence for the sake
of comfort and convenience; when it frequently happens that men who in
public life are extremely energetic, spirited, obstinate, wilful and
ruthless appear good-natured, mild, compliant, even weak, when at home
and in the bosom of the family. Which is the true character, the real
personality? . . .
. . . . In my view the answer to the above
question should be that such a man has no real character at all: he is
not individual but collective, the plaything of circumstance and general
expectations. Were he individual, he would have the same character
despite the variation of attitude. He would not be identical with the
attitude of the moment, and he neither would nor could prevent his
individuality from expressing itself just as clearly in one state as in
another.["Definitions," CW 6, pars.
Personification. The tendency of psychic contents or complexes
to take on a distinct personality, separate from the ego.
Every autonomous or even relatively autonomous complex has the
peculiarity of appearing as a personality, i.e., of being personified.
This can be observed most readily in the so-called spiritualistic
manifestations of automatic writing and the like. The sentences produced
are always personal statements and are propounded in the first person
singular, as though behind every utterance there stood an actual
personality. A naïve intelligence at once thinks of spirits.["Anima and Animus," CW 7, par. 312.]
The ego may also deliberately personify unconscious contents or the
affects that arise from them, using the method of active imagination, in
order to facilitate communication between consciousness and the
Philosophers' stone. In alchemy, a metaphor for the successful
transmutation of base metal into gold; psychologically, an archetypal
image of wholeness. (See also coniunctio.)
Jung quoted from the Rosarium philosophorum:
Make a round circle of man and woman, extract therefrom a quadrangle
and from it a triangle. Make the circle round, and you will have the
Philosophers' Stone.["Psychology and Religion," CW 11,
Possession. A term used to describe the identification of
consciousness with an unconscious content or complex. The most
common forms of possession are by the shadow and the contrasexual
A man who is possessed by his shadow is always standing in his own
light and falling into his own traps. Whenever possible, he prefers to
make an unfavorable impression on others. . . .
Possession caused by
the anima or animus presents a different picture. . . . In the state of
possession both figures lose their charm and their values; they retain
them only when they are turned away from the world, in the introverted
state, when they serve as bridges to the unconscious. Turned towards the
world, the anima is fickle, capricious, moody, uncontrolled and
emotional, sometimes gifted with daemonic intuitions, ruthless,
malicious, untruthful, bitchy, double-faced, and mystical. The animus is
obstinate, harping on principles, laying down the law, dogmatic,
world-reforming, theoretic, word-mongering, argumentative, and
domineering. Both alike have bad taste: the anima surrounds herself with
inferior people, and the animus lets himself be taken in by second-rate
thinking.["Concerning Rebirth," CW 9i, pars.
Power complex. A group of emotionally toned ideas associated
with an attitude that seeks to subordinate all influences and experience
to the supremacy of the personal ego.
Prima materia. An alchemical term meaning "original matter,"
used psychologically to denote both the instinctual foundation of life and
the raw material one works with in analysis-dreams, emotions, conflicts,
Primary function. The psychological function that is most
differentiated. (Compare inferior function.) In Jung's model of
typology, the primary or superior function is the one we automatically use
because it comes most naturally.
Experience shows that it is practically impossible, owing to adverse
circumstances in general, for anyone to develop all his psychological
functions simultaneously. The demands of society compel a man to apply
himself first and foremost to the differentiation of the function with
which he is best equipped by nature, or which will secure him the
greatest social success. Very frequently, indeed as a general rule, a
man identifies more or less completely with the most favoured and hence
the most developed function. It is this that gives rise to the various
psychological types.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
In deciding which of the four functions-thinking, feeling, sensation or
intuition-is primary, one must closely observe which function is more or
less completely under conscious control, and which functions have a
haphazard or random character. The superior function (which can manifest
in either an introverted or an extraverted way) is always more highly
developed than the others, which possess infantile and primitive
The superior function is always an expression of the conscious
personality, of its aims, will, and general performance, whereas the
less differentiated functions fall into the category of things that
simply "happen" to one.[General Description of the Types,"
ibid., par. 575.]
Primitive. Descriptive of the original, or undifferentiated,
human psyche. (See also archaic.)
I use the term "primitive" in the sense of "primordial," and . . . do
not imply any kind of value judgment. Also, when I speak of a "vestige"
of a primitive state, I no not necessarily mean that this state will
sooner or later come to an end. On the contrary, I see no reason why it
should not endure as long as humanity lasts.["A Review of
the Complex Theory," CW 8, par. 218.]
Primordial image. See archetypal image.
Progression. The daily advance of the process of psychological
adaptation, the opposite of regression. (See also
Progression is a forwards movement of life in the same sense that
time moves forwards. This movement can occur in two different forms:
either extraverted, when the progression is predominantly influenced by
objects and environmental conditions, or introverted, when it has to
adapt itself to the conditions of the ego (or, more accurately, of the
"subjective factor"). Similarly, regression can proceed along two lines:
either as a retreat from the outside world (introversion), or as a
flight into extravagant experience of the outside world (extraversion).
Failure in the first case drives a man into a state of dull brooding,
and in the second case into leading the life of a wastrel. ["On Psychic Energy," ibid., par. 77.]
In the normal course of life, there is a relatively easy progression of
libido; energy may be directed more or less at will. This is not the same
as psychological development or individuation. Progression refers simply
to the continuous flow or current of life. It is commonly interrupted by a
conflict or the inability to adapt to changing circumstances.
During the progression of libido the pairs of opposites are united in
the co-ordinated flow of psychic processes. . . . But in the stoppage of
libido that occurs when progression has become impossible, positive and
negative can no longer unite in co-ordinated action, because both have
attained an equal value which keeps the scales balanced. [Ibid., par. 61.]
The struggle between the opposites would continue unabated if the
process of regression, the backward movement of libido, did not set in,
its purpose being to compensate the conscious attitude.
Through their collision the opposites are gradually deprived of value
and depotentiated. . . . In proportion to the decrease in value of the
conscious opposites there is an increase in value of all those psychic
processes which are not concerned with outward adaptation and therefore
are seldom or never employed consciously.["On Psychic
Energy," ibid., par. 62.]
As the energic value of these previously unconscious psychic processes
increases, they manifest indirectly as disturbances of conscious behavior
and symptoms characteristic of neurosis. Prominent aspects of the psyche
one then needs to become aware of are the persona, the contrasexual
complex (anima/animus) and the shadow.
Projection. An automatic process whereby contents of one's own
unconscious are perceived to be in others. (See also archaic,
identification and participation mystique.)
Just as we tend to assume that the world is as we see it, we naïvely
suppose that people are as we imagine them to be. . . . All the contents
of our unconscious are constantly being projected into our surroundings,
and it is only by recognizing certain properties of the objects as
projections or imagos that we are able to distinguish them from the real
properties of the objects. . . . Cum grano salis, we always see
our own unavowed mistakes in our opponent. Excellent examples of this
are to be found in all personal quarrels. Unless we are possessed of an
unusual degree of self-awareness we shall never see through our
projections but must always succumb to them, because the mind in its
natural state presupposes the existence of such projections. It is the
natural and given thing for unconscious contents to be projected.["General Aspects of Dream Psychology," ibid., par.
Projection means the expulsion of a subjective content into an
object; it is the opposite of introjection. Accordingly, it is a process
of dissimilation, by which a subjective content becomes alienated from
the subject and is, so to speak, embodied in the object. The subject
gets rid of painful, incompatible contents by projecting them.[Definitions," CW 6, par. 783.]
Projection is not a conscious process. One meets with projections, one
does not make them.
The general psychological reason for projection is always an
activated unconscious that seeks expression.["The
Tavistock Lectures," CW 18, par. 352.]
It is possible to project certain characteristics onto another person
who does not possess them at all, but the one being projected upon may
unconsciously encourage it.
It frequently happens that the object offers a hook to the
projection, and even lures it out. This is generally the case when the
object himself (or herself) is not conscious of the quality in question:
in that way it works directly upon the unconscious of the projicient.
For all projections provoke counter-projections when the object
is unconscious of the quality projected upon it by the subject.[General Aspects of Dream Psychology," CW 8, par.
Through projection one can create a series of imaginary relationships
that often have little or nothing to do with the outside world.
The effect of projection is to isolate the subject from his
environment, since instead of a real relation to it there is now only an
illusory one. Projections change the world into the replica of one's own
unknown face. In the last analysis, therefore, they lead to an
autoerotic or autistic condition in which one dreams a world whose
reality remains forever unattainable.[The Shadow," CW 9ii,
Projection also has positive effects. In everyday life it facilitates
interpersonal relations. In addition, when we assume that some quality or
characteristic is present in another, and then, through experience, find
that this is not so, we can learn something about ourselves. This involves
withdrawing or dissolving projections.
So long as the libido can use these projections as agreeable and
convenient bridges to the world, they will alleviate life in a positive
way. But as soon as the libido wants to strike out on another path, and
for this purpose begins running back along the previous bridges of
projection, they will work as the greatest hindrances it is possible to
imagine, for they effectively prevent any real detachment from the
former object.["General Aspects of Dream Psychology," CW
8, par. 507.]
The need to withdraw projections is generally signaled by frustrated
expectations in relationships, accompanied by strong affect. But Jung
believed that until there is an obvious discordance between what we
imagine to be true and the reality we are presented with, there is no need
to speak of projections, let alone withdraw them.
Projection . . . is properly so called only when the need to dissolve
the identity with the object has already arisen. This need arises when
the identity becomes a disturbing factor, i.e., when the absence of the
projected content is a hindrance to adaptation and its withdrawal into
the subject has become desirable. From this moment the previous partial
identity acquires the character of projection. The term projection
therefore signifies a state of identity that has become noticeable.["Definitions," CW 6, par. 783.]
Jung distinguished between passive projection and active
projection. Passive projection is completely automatic and unintentional,
like falling in love. The less we know about another person, the easier it
is to passively project unconscious aspects of ourselves onto
Active projection is better known as empathy-we feel ourselves
into the other's shoes. Empathy that extends to the point where we lose
our own standpoint becomes identification.
The projection of the personal shadow generally falls on persons of the
same sex. On a collective level, it gives rise to war, scapegoating and
confrontations between political parties. Projection that takes place in
the context of a therapeutic relationship is called transference or
countertransference, depending on whether the analysand or the analyst is
the one projecting.
In terms of the contrasexual complexes, anima
and animus, projection is both a common cause of animosity and a singular
source of vitality.
When animus and anima meet, the animus draws his sword of power and
the anima ejects her poison of illusion and seduction. The outcome need
not always be negative, since the two are equally likely to fall in
love.[The Syzygy: Anima and Animus," CW 9ii, par.
Provisional life. A term used to describe an attitude toward
life that is more or less imaginary, not rooted in the here and now,
commonly associated with puer psychology.
Psyche. The totality of all psychological processes, both
conscious and unconscious.
The psyche is far from being a homogenous unit--on the contrary, it
is a boiling cauldron of contradictory impulses, inhibitions, and
affects, and for many people the conflict between them is so
insupportable that they even wish for the deliverance preached by
theologians.["Psychological Aspects of the Mother
Archetype," CW 9i, par. 190.]
The way in which the psyche manifests is a complicated interplay of
many factors, including an individual's age, sex, hereditary disposition,
psychological type and attitude, and degree of conscious control over the
Psychic processes . . . behave like a scale along which consciousness
"slides." At one moment it finds itself in the vicinity of instinct, and
falls under its influence; at another, it slides along to the other end
where spirit predominates and even assimilates the instinctual processes
most opposed to it. ["On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8,
The tremendous complexity of psychic phenomena led Jung to the belief
that attempts to formulate a comprehensive theory of the psyche were
doomed to failure.
The premises are always far too simple. The psyche is the
starting-point of all human experience, and all the knowledge we have
gained eventually leads back to it. The psyche is the beginning and end
of all cognition. It is not only the object of its science, but the
subject also. This gives psychology a unique place among all the other
sciences: on the one hand there is a constant doubt as to the
possibility of its being a science at all, while on the other hand
psychology acquires the right to state a theoretical problem the
solution of which will be one of the most difficult tasks for a future
philosophy.[Psychological Factors in Human Behaviour,"
ibid., par. 261.]
Psychic energy. See libido.
Psychization. The process of reflection whereby an
instinct or unconscious content is made conscious.
Psychogenic. Descriptive of mental disturbances having a
psychological rather than physiological origin.
Nobody doubts that the neuroses are psychogenic.
"Psychogenesis" means that the essential cause of a neurosis, or the
condition under which it arises, is of a psychic nature. It may, for
instance, be a psychic shock, a gruelling conflict, a wrong kind of
psychic adaptation, a fatal illusion, and so on.["Mental
disease and the Psyche," CW 3, par. 496.]
Psychoid. A concept applicable to virtually any archetype,
expressing the essentially unknown but experienceable connection between
psyche and matter.
Psyche is essentially conflict between blind instinct and will
(freedom of choice). Where instinct predominates, psychoid
processes set in which pertain to the sphere of the unconscious as
elements incapable of consciousness. The psychoid process is not the
unconscious as such, for this has a far greater extension.["On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par. 380.]
It seems to me probable that the real nature of the archetype is not
capable of being made conscious, that it is transcendent, on which
account I call it psychoid. [ Ibid., par.
Psychological types. See type and typology.
Psychopomp. A psychic factor that mediates unconscious contents
to consciousness, often personified in the image of a wise old man or
woman, and sometimes as a helpful animal.
Psychosis. An extreme dissociation of the personality. Like
neurosis, a psychotic condition is due to the activity of unconscious
complexes and the phenomenon of splitting. In neurosis, the complexes are
only relatively autonomous. In psychosis, they are completely disconnected
To have complexes is in itself normal; but if the complexes are
incompatible, that part of the personality which is too contrary to the
conscious part becomes split off. If the split reaches the organic
structure, the dissociation is a psychosis, a schizophrenic condition,
as the term denotes. Each complex then lives an existence of its own,
with no personality left to tie them together.["The
Tavistock Lectures," CW 18, par. 382.]
[In schizophrenia] the split-off figures assume banal, grotesque, or
highly exaggerated names and characters, and are often objectionable in
many other ways. They do not, moreover, co-operate with the patient's
consciousness. They are not tactful and they have no respect for
sentimental values. On the contrary, they break in and make a
disturbance at any time, they torment the ego in a hundred ways; all are
objectionable and shocking, either in their noisy and impertinent
behaviour or in their grotesque cruelty and obscenity. There is an
apparent chaos of incoherent visions, voices, and characters, all of an
overwhelmingly strange and incomprehensible nature.[On the
Psychogenesis of Schizophrenia," CW 3, par. 508.]
Jung believed that many psychoses, and particularly schizophrenia, were
psychogenic, resulting from an abaissement du niveau mental and an
ego too weak to resist the onslaught of unconscious contents. He reserved
judgment on whether biological factors were a contributing cause.
Puer aeternus. Latin for "eternal child," used in mythology to
designate a child-god who is forever young; psychologically it refers to
an older man whose emotional life has remained at an adolescent level,
usually coupled with too great a dependence on the mother.[The term
puella is used when referring to a woman, though one might also speak of a
puer animus-or a puella anima.]
The puer typically leads a
provisional life, due to the fear of being caught in a situation from
which it might not be possible to escape. His lot is seldom what he really
wants and one day he will do something about it-but not just yet. Plans
for the future slip away in fantasies of what will be, what could be,
while no decisive action is taken to change. He covets independence and
freedom, chafes at boundaries and limits, and tends to find any
[The world] makes demands on the masculinity of a man, on his ardour,
above all on his courage and resolution when it comes to throwing his
whole being into the scales. For this he would need a faithless Eros,
one capable of forgetting his mother and undergoing the pain of
relinquishing the first love of his life.[The Syzygy:
Anima and Animus," CW 9ii, par. 22.]
Common symptoms of puer psychology are dreams of imprisonment and
similar imagery: chains, bars, cages, entrapment, bondage. Life itself,
existential reality, is experienced as a prison. The bars are unconscious
ties to the unfettered world of early life.
The puer's shadow is
the senex (Latin for "old man"), associated with the god
Apollo-disciplined, controlled, responsible, rational, ordered.
Conversely, the shadow of the senex is the puer, related to
Dionysus-unbounded instinct, disorder, intoxication, whimsy.
Whoever lives out one pattern to the exclusion of the other risks
constellating the opposite. Hence individuation quite as often involves
the need for a well-controlled person to get closer to the spontaneous,
instinctual life as it does the puer's need to grow up.
The "eternal child" in man is an indescribable experience, an
incongruity, a handicap, and a divine prerogative; an imponderable that
determines the ultimate worth or worthlessness of a personality.[The Psychology of the Child Archetype," CW 9i, par.
Quaternity. An image with a four-fold structure, usually square
or circular and symmetrical; psychologically, it points to the idea of
wholeness. (See also temenos.)
The quaternity is one of the most widespread archetypes and has also
proved to be one of the most useful schemata for representing the
arrangement of the functions by which the conscious mind takes its
bearings.[See below, typology.] It is like the crossed threads in
the telescope of our understanding. The cross formed by the points of
the quaternity is no less universal and has in addition the highest
possible moral and religious significance for Western man. Similarly the
circle, as the symbol of completeness and perfect being, is a widespread
expression for heaven, sun, and God; it also expresses the primordial
image of man and the soul.["The Psychology of the
Transference," CW 16, par. 405.]
From the circle and quaternity motif is derived the symbol of the
geometrically formed crystal and the wonder-working stone. From here
analogy formation leads on to the city, castle, church, house, and
vessel. Another variant is the wheel (rota). The former motif emphasizes
the ego's containment in the greater dimension of the self; the latter
emphasizes the rotation which also appears as a ritual circumambulation.
Psychologically, it denotes concentration on and preoccupation with a
centre.[The Structure and Dynamics of the Self," CW 9ii,
Jung believed that the spontaneous production of quaternary images
(including mandalas), whether consciously or in dreams and fantasies, can
indicate the ego's capacity to assimilate unconscious material. But they
may also be essentially apotropaic, an attempt by the psyche to prevent
itself from disintegrating.
These images are naturally only anticipations of a wholeness which
is, in principle, always just beyond our reach. Also, they do not
invariably indicate a subliminal readiness on the part of the patient to
realize that wholeness consciously, at a later stage; often they mean no
more than a temporary compensation of chaotic confusion.[The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16, par.
Rapport. A feeling of agreement between oneself and others.
It frequently happens that despite an absolute difference of
standpoint a rapport nevertheless comes about, and in the following way:
one party, by unspoken projection, assumes that the other is, in all
essentials, of the same opinion as himself, while the other divines or
senses an objective community of interest, of which, however, the former
has no conscious inkling and whose existence he would at once dispute,
just as it would never occur to the other that his relationship should
be based on a common point of view. A rapport of this kind is by far the
most frequent; it rests on mutual projection, which later becomes the
source of many misunderstandings. ["General Description of
the Types," CW 6, par. 618.]
Rational. Descriptive of thoughts, feelings and actions that
accord with reason, an attitude based on objective values established by
practical experience. (Compare irrational.)
The rational attitude which permits us to declare objective values as
valid at all is not the work of the individual subject, but the product
of human history.
Most objective values-and reason itself-are firmly
established complexes of ideas handed down through the ages. Countless
generations have laboured at their organization with the same necessity
with which the living organism reacts to the average, constantly
recurring environmental conditions, confronting them with corresponding
functional complexes, as the eye, for instance, perfectly corresponds to
the nature of light. . . . Thus the laws of reason are the laws that
designate and govern the average, "correct," adapted attitude.
Everything is "rational" that accords with these laws, everything that
contravenes them is "irrational."[Definitions," ibid.,
Jung described the psychological functions of thinking and feeling as
rational because they are decisively influenced by reflection.
Rebirth. A process experienced as a renewal or transformation of
the personality. (See also individuation.)
Rebirth is not a process that we can in any way observe. We can
neither measure nor weigh nor photograph it. It is entirely beyond sense
perception. . . . One speaks of rebirth; one professes rebirth; one is
filled with rebirth. . . . We have to be content with its psychic
reality.[Concerning Rebirth," CW 9i, par.
Jung distinguished between five different forms of rebirth:
metempsychosis (transmigration of souls), reincarnation (in
a human body), resurrection, psychological rebirth
(individuation) and indirect change that comes about through
participation in the process of
Psychological rebirth was Jung's particular
focus. Induced by ritual or stimulated by immediate personal experience,
it results in an enlargement of the personality. He acknowledged that one
might feel transformed during certain group experiences, but he cautioned
against confusing this with genuine rebirth.
If any considerable group of persons are united and identified with
one another by a particular frame of mind, the resultant
transformation experience bears only a very remote resemblance to the
experience of individual transformation. A group experience takes
place on a lower level of consciousness than the experience of an
individual. This is due to the fact that, when many people gather
together to share one common emotion, the total psyche emerging from
the group is below the level of the individual psyche. If it is a very
large group, the collective psyche will be more like the psyche of an
animal . . . .
. . . The group experience goes no deeper than the
level of one's own mind in that state. It does work a change in you,
but the change does not last.[Ibid., pars.
Reductive. Literally, "leading back," descriptive of
interpretations of dreams and neurosis in terms of events in
outer life, particularly those in childhood. (Compare constructive
The reductive method is oriented backwards, in contrast to the
constructive method . . . . The interpretive methods of both Freud and
Adler are reductive, since in both cases there is a reduction to the
elementary processes of wishing or striving, which in the last resort
are of an infantile or physiological nature. . . . Reduction has a
disintegrative effect on the real significance of the unconscious
product, since this is either traced back to its historical antecedents
[e.g., childhood] and thereby annihilated, or integrated once again with
the same elementary process from which it arose.[Definitions," CW 6, par. 788.]
In dream interpretation, the reductive (also called mechanistic) method
seeks to explain images of persons and situations in terms of concrete
reality. The constructive or final approach focuses on the dream's
Although Jung himself concentrated on the
constructive approach, he regarded reductive analysis as an important
first step in the treatment of psychological problems, particularly in the
first half of life.
The neuroses of the young generally come from a collision between the
forces of reality and an inadequate, infantile attitude, which from the
causal point of view is characterized by an abnormal dependence on the
real or imaginary parents, and from the teleological point of view by
unrealizable fictions, plans, and aspirations. Here the reductive
methods of Freud and Adler are entirely in place.[The
Problem of the Attitude-Type," CW 7, par. 88.]
Reflection. Mental activity that concentrates on a particular
content of consciousness, an instinct encompassing religion and the search
Ordinarily we do not think of "reflection" as ever having been
instinctive, but associate it with a conscious state of mind.
Reflexio means "bending back" and, used psychologically, would
denote the fact that the reflex which carries the stimulus over into its
instinctive discharge is interfered with by psychization. . . . Thus in
place of the compulsive act there appears a certain degree of freedom,
and in place of predictability a relative unpredictability as to the
effect of the impulse.["Psychological Factors in Human
Behaviour," CW 8, par. 241.]
In Jung's view, the richness of the human psyche and its essential
character are determined by the reflective instinct.
Reflection is the cultural instinct par excellence, and its strength
is shown in the power of culture to maintain itself in the face of
untamed nature.[ Ibid., par. 243. ]
Regression. The backward movement of libido to an earlier mode
of adaptation, often accompanied by infantile fantasies and wishes.
(See also depression; compare progression.)
Regression . . . as an adaptation to the conditions of the inner
world, springs from the vital need to satisfy the demands of
individuation.["On Psychic Energy," ibid., par.
What robs Nature of its glamour, and life of its joy, is the habit of
looking back for something that used to be outside, instead of looking
inside, into the depths of the depressive state. This looking back leads
to regression and is the first step along that path. Regression is also
an involuntary introversion in so far as the past is an object of memory
and therefore a psychic content, an endopsychic factor. It is a relapse
into the past caused by a depression in the present.[The
Sacrifice," CW 5, par. 625.]
Jung believed that the blockage of the forward movement of energy is
due to the inability of the dominant conscious attitude to adapt to
changing circumstances. However, the unconscious contents thereby
activated contain the seeds of a new progression. For instance, the
opposite or inferior function is waiting in the wings, potentially capable
of modifying the inadequate conscious attitude.
If thinking fails as the adapted function, because it is dealing with
a situation to which one can adapt only by feeling, then the unconscious
material activated by regression will contain the missing feeling
function, although still in embryonic form, archaic and undeveloped.
Similarly, in the opposite type, regression would activate a thinking
function that would effectively compensate the inadequate feeling. ["On Psychic Energy," CW 8, par. 65.]
The regression of energy confronts us with the problem of our own
psychology. From the final point of view, therefore, regression is as
necessary in the developmental process as is progression.
Regarded causally, regression is determined, say, by a "mother
fixation." But from the final standpoint the libido regresses to the
imago of the mother in order to find there the memory
associations by means of which further development can take place, for
instance from a sexual system into an intellectual or spiritual
The first explanation exhausts itself in stressing the
importance of the cause and completely overlooks the final significance
of the regressive process. From this angle the whole edifice of
civilization becomes a mere substitute for the impossibility of incest.
But the second explanation allows us to foresee what will follow from
the regression, and at the same time it helps us to understand the
significance of the memory-images that have been reactivated.[ Ibid., pars. 43f. ]
Jung believed that behind the mundane symptoms of regression lay its
symbolic meaning: the need for psychological renewal, reflected in
mythology as the journey of the hero.
It is precisely the strongest and best among men, the heroes, who
give way to their regressive longing and purposely expose themselves to
the danger of being devoured by the monster of the maternal abyss. But
if a man is a hero, he is a hero because, in the final reckoning, he did
not let the monster devour him, but subdued it, not once but many times.
Victory over the collective psyche alone yields the true value-the
capture of the hoard, the invincible weapon, the magic talisman, or
whatever it be that the myth deems most desirable.[The
Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious," CW 7, par.
Regressive restoration of the persona. A term used to describe
what can happen when there has been a major collapse in the conscious
Take as an example a businessman who takes too great a risk and
consequently goes bankrupt. If he does not allow himself to be
discouraged by this depressing experience, but, undismayed, keeps his
former daring, perhaps with a little salutary caution added, his wound
will be healed without permanent injury. But if, on the other hand, he
goes to pieces, abjures all further risks, and laboriously tries to
patch up his social reputation within the confines of a much more
limited personality, doing inferior work with the mentality of a scared
child, in a post far below him, then, technically speaking, he will have
restored his persona in a regressive way. . . . Formerly perhaps he
wanted more than he could accomplish; now he does not even dare to
attempt what he has it in him to do.[ Ibid., par.
The regressive restoration of the persona is a possible course only
for the man who owes the critical failure of his life to his own
inflatedness. With diminished personality, he turns back to the measure
he can fill. But in every other case resignation and self-belittlement
are an evasion, which in the long run can be kept up only at the cost of
neurotic sickliness.[Ibid., par.
Religious attitude. Psychologically, an attitude informed by the
careful observation of, and respect for, invisible forces and personal
We might say . . . that the term "religion" designates the attitude
peculiar to a consciousness which has been changed by experience of the
numinosum.["Psychology and Religion," CW 11, par.
Religion . . . is an instinctive attitude peculiar to man, and its
manifestations can be followed all through human history. ["The Undiscovered Self," CW 10, par.
The religious attitude is quite different from faith associated with a
specific creed. The latter, as a codified and dogmatized form of an
original religious experience, simply gives expression to a particular
collective belief. True religion involves a subjective relationship to
certain metaphysical, extramundane factors.
A creed is a confession of faith intended chiefly for the world at
large and is thus an intramundane affair, while the meaning and purpose
of religion lie in the relationship of the individual to God
(Christianity, Judaism, Islam) or to the path of salvation and
liberation (Buddhism). [Ibid., par.
Jung believed that a neurosis in the second half of life is seldom
cured without the development of a religious attitude, prompted by a
spontaneous revelation of the spirit.
This spirit is an autonomous psychic happening, a hush that follows
the storm, a reconciling light in the darkness of man's mind, secretly
bringing order into the chaos of his soul. ["A
Psychological Approach to the Trinity," CW 11, par.
Repression. The unconscious suppression of psychic contents that
are incompatible with the attitude of consciousness.
Repression is a process that begins in early childhood under the
moral influence of the environment and continues through life.["The Personal and the Collective Unconscious," CW 7, par.
Repression causes what is called a systematic amnesia, where
only specific memories or groups of ideas are withdrawn from
recollection. In such cases a certain attitude or tendency can be
detected on the part of the conscious mind, a deliberate intention to
avoid even the bare possibility of recollection, for the very good
reason that it would be painful or disagreeable [Analytical Psychology and Education," CW 17, par.
Repression is not only a factor in the etiology of many neuroses, it
also determines contents of the personal shadow, since the ego generally
represses material that would disturb peace of mind
In the course of development following puberty, consciousness is
confronted with affective tendencies, impulses, and fantasies which for
a variety of reasons it is not willing or not able to assimilate. It
then reacts with repression in various forms, in the effort to get rid
of the troublesome intruders. The general rule is that the more negative
the conscious attitude is, and the more it resists, devalues, and is
afraid, the more repulsive, aggressive, and frightening is the face
which the dissociated content assumes.["The Philosophical
Tree," CW 13, par. 464.]
Many repressed contents come to the surface naturally during the
analytic process. Where there are strong resistances to uncovering
repressed material, Jung believed these should always be respected lest
the ego be overwhelmed.
The general rule should be that the weakness of the conscious
attitude is proportional to the strength of the resistance. When,
therefore, there are strong resistances, the conscious rapport with the
patient must be carefully watched, and-in certain cases-his conscious
attitude must be supported to such a degree that, in view of later
developments, one would be bound to charge oneself with the grossest
inconsistency. That is inevitable, because one can never be too sure
that the weak state of the patient's conscious mind will prove equal to
the subsequent assault of the unconscious. In fact, one must go on
supporting his conscious (or, as Freud thinks, "repres-sive") attitude
until the patient can let the "repressed" contents rise up
spontaneously.[The Psychology of the Unconscious," CW 16,
Sacred marriage. See coniunctio.
Sacrifice. Psychologically, associated with the need to give up
the world of childhood, often signaled by the regression of
One must give up the retrospective longing which only wants to
resuscitate the torpid bliss and effortlessness of childhood.[The Sacrifice," CW 5, par. 643.]
For him who looks backwards the whole world, even the starry sky,
becomes the mother who bends over him and enfolds him on all sides, and
from the renunciation of this image, and of the longing for it, arises
the picture of the world as we know it today.[ Ibid., par.
Schizophrenia. See psychosis.
Self. The archetype of wholeness and the regulating center of
the psyche; a transpersonal power that transcends the ego.
As an empirical concept, the self designates the whole range of
psychic phenomena in man. It expresses the unity of the personality as a
whole. But in so far as the total personality, on account of its
unconscious component, can be only in part conscious, the concept of the
self is, in part, only potentially empirical and is to that
extent a postulate. In other words, it encompasses both the
experienceable and the inexperienceable (or the not yet experienced). .
. . It is a transcendental concept, for it presupposes the
existence of unconscious factors on empirical grounds and thus
characterizes an entity that can be described only in part.["Definitions," CW 6, par. 789.]
The self is not only the centre, but also the whole circumference
which embraces both conscious and unconscious; it is the centre of this
totality, just as the ego is the centre of consciousness.
["Introduction," CW 12, par. 44.]
Like any archetype, the essential nature of the self is unknowable, but
its manifestations are the content of myth and legend.
The self appears in dreams, myths, and fairytales in the figure of
the "supraordinate personality," such as a king, hero, prophet, saviour,
etc., or in the form of a totality symbol, such as the circle, square,
quadratura circuli, cross, etc. When it represents a complexio
oppositorum, a union of opposites, it can also appear as a united
duality, in the form, for instance, of tao as the interplay of
yang and yin, or of the hostile brothers, or of the hero
and his adversary (arch-enemy, dragon), Faust and Mephistopheles, etc.
Empirically, therefore, the self appears as a play of light and shadow,
although conceived as a totality and unity in which the opposites are
united.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
The realization of the self as an autonomous psychic factor is often
stimulated by the irruption of unconscious contents over which the ego has
no control. This can result in neurosis and a subsequent renewal of the
personality, or in an inflated identification with the greater power.
The ego cannot help discovering that the afflux of unconscious
contents has vitalized the personality, enriched it and created a figure
that somehow dwarfs the ego in scope and intensity. . . . Naturally, in
these circumstances there is the greatest temptation simply to follow
the power-instinct and to identify the ego with the self outright, in
order to keep up the illusion of the ego's mastery. . . . [But] the self
has a functional meaning only when it can act compensatorily to
ego-consciousness. If the ego is dissolved in identification with the
self, it gives rise to a sort of nebulous superman with a puffed-up
ego.[On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
Experiences of the self possess a numinosity characteristic of
religious revelations. Hence Jung believed there was no essential
difference between the self as an experiential, psychological reality and
the traditional concept of a supreme deity.
It might equally be called the "God within us."[The
Mana-Personality," CW 7, par. 399.
Self-regulation of the psyche. A concept based on the
compensatory relationship between consciousness and the unconscious. (See
also adaptation, compensation, neurosis, opposites and
The psyche does not merely react, it gives its own specific answer to
the influences at work upon it.[Some Crucial Points in
Psychoanalysis," CW 4, par. 665.]
The process of self-regulation is going on all the time within the
psyche. It only becomes noticeable when ego-consciousness has particular
difficulty in adapting to external or internal reality. That is often the
start of a process, proceeeding along the lines outlined in the chart,
that may lead to individuation.
The Self-regulation of the Psyche
1. Difficulty of adaptation. Little progression of libido.
2. Regression of energy (depression, lack of disposable energy).
3. Activation of unconscious contents (fantasies,
archetypal images, inferior function, opposite
shadow, anima/animus, etc.). Compensation.
4. Symptoms of neurosis (confusion, fear, anxiety, guilt, moods,
extreme affect, etc.).
5. Unconscious or half-conscious conflict between ego and contents
activated in the unconscious.
Inner tension. Defensive reactions.
6. Activation of the transcendent function, involving the self and
archetypal patterns of wholeness.
7. Formation of symbols (numinosity, synchronicity).
8. Transfer of energy between unconscious contents and consciousness.
Enlargement of the ego,
progression of energy.
9. Assimilation of unconscious contents. Individuation.
Consciousness and the unconscious seldom agree as to their contents and
their tendencies. The self-regulating activities of the psyche, manifest
in dreams, fantasies and synchronistic experiences, attempt to correct any
significant imbalance. According to Jung, this is necessary for several
(1) Consciousness possesses a threshold intensity which its contents
must have attained, so that all elements that are too weak remain in the
(2) Consciousness, because of its directed functions, exercises an
inhibition (which Freud calls censorship) on all incompatible material,
with the result that it sinks into the unconscious.
(3) Consciousness constitutes the momentary process of adaptation,
whereas the unconscious contains not only all the forgotten material of
the individual's own past, but all the inherited behaviour traces
constituting the structure of the mind [i.e., archetypes].
(4) The unconscious contains all the fantasy combinations which have
not yet attained the threshold intensity, but which in the course of time
and under suitable conditions will enter the light of consciousness.["The Transcendent Function," CW 8, par. 132.]
Sensation. The psychological function that perceives
immediate reality through the physical senses. (Compare
An attitude that seeks to do justice to the unconscious as well as to
one's fellow human beings cannot possibly rest on knowledge alone, in so
far as this consists merely of thinking and intuition. It would lack the
function that perceives values, i.e., feeling, as well as the
fonction du réel, i.e., sensation, the sensible perception of
reality. ["the Psychology of the Transference," CW 16,
In Jung's model of typology, sensation, like intuition, is an
irrational function. It perceives concrete facts, with no judgment of what
they mean or what they are worth.
Sensation must be strictly differentiated from feeling, since the
latter is an entirely different process, although it may associate
itself with sensation as "feeling-tone." Sensation is related not only
to external stimuli but to inner ones, i.e., to changes in the internal
organic processes.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
Jung also distinguished between sensuous or concrete sensation and
Concrete sensation never appears in "pure" form, but is always mix-ed
up with ideas, feelings, thoughts. . . . The concrete sensation of a
flower . . . conveys a perception not only of the flower as such, but
also of the stem, leaves, habitat, and so on. It is also instantly
mingled with feeling of pleasure or dislike which the sight of the
flower evokes, or with simultaneous olfactory perceptions, or with
thoughts about its botanical classification, etc. But abstract sensation
immediately picks out the most salient sensuous attribute of the flower,
its brilliant redness, for instance, and makes this the sole or at least
the principle content of consciousness, entirely detached from all other
admixtures. Abstract sensation is found chiefly among artists. Like
every abstraction, it is a product of functional differentiation.[Ibid., par. 794.]
Shadow. Hidden or unconscious aspects of oneself, both good and
bad, which the ego has either repressed or never recognized. (See also
The shadow is a moral problem that challenges the whole
ego-personality, for no one can become conscious of the shadow without
considerable moral effort. To become conscious of it involves
recognizing the dark aspects of the personality as present and real.
["The Shadow," CW 9ii, par. 14.]
Before unconscious contents have been differentiated, the shadow is in
effect the whole of the unconscious. It is commonly personified in dreams
by persons of the same sex as the dreamer.
The shadow is composed
for the most part of repressed desires and uncivilized impulses, morally
inferior motives, childish fantasies and resentments, etc.--all those
things about oneself one is not proud of. These unacknowledged personal
characteristics are often experienced in others through the mechanism of
Although, with insight and good will, the shadow can to some extent
be assimilated into the conscious personality, experience shows that
there are certain features which offer the most obstinate resistance to
moral control and prove almost impossible to influence. These
resistances are usually bound up with projections, which are not
recognized as such, and their recognition is a moral achievement beyond
the ordinary. While some traits peculiar to the shadow can be recognized
without too much difficulty as one's personal qualities, in this case
both insight and good will are unavailing because the cause of the
emotion appears to lie, beyond all possibility of doubt, in the other
person.[Ibid., par. 16.]
The realization of the shadow is inhibited by the persona. To the
degree that we identify with a bright persona, the shadow is
correspondingly dark. Thus shadow and persona stand in a compensatory
relationship, and the conflict between them is invariably present in an
outbreak of neurosis. The characteristic depression at such times
indicates the need to realize that one is not all one pretends or wishes
There is no generally effective technique for assimilating
the shadow. It is more like diplomacy or statesmanship and it is always an
individual matter. First one has to accept and take seriously the
existence of the shadow. Second, one has to become aware of its qualities
and intentions. This happens through conscientious attention to moods,
fantasies and impulses. Third, a long process of negotiation is
It is a therapeutic necessity, indeed, the first requisite of any
thorough psychological method, for consciousness to confront its shadow.
In the end this must lead to some kind of union, even though the union
consists at first in an open conflict, and often remains so for a long
time. It is a struggle that cannot be abolished by rational means. When
it is wilfully repressed it continues in the unconscious and merely
expresses itself indirectly and all the more dangerously, so no
advantage is gained. The struggle goes on until the opponents run out of
breath. What the outcome will be can never be seen in advance. The only
certain thing is that both parties will be changed.["Rex
and Regina," CW 14, par. 514.]
This process of coming to terms with the Other in us is well worth
while, because in this way we get to know aspects of our nature which we
would not allow anybody else to show us and which we ourselves would
never have admitted.[The Conjunction," ibid., par.
Responsibility for the shadow rests with the ego. That is why the
shadow is a moral problem. It is one thing to realize what it looks
like-what we are capable of. It is quite something else to determine what
we can live out, or with.
Confrontation with the shadow produces at first a dead balance, a
standstill that hampers moral decisions and makes convictions
ineffective or even impossible. Everything becomes doubtful.[Ibid., par. 708.]
The shadow is not, however, only the dark underside of the personality.
It also consists of instincts, abilities and positive moral qualities that
have long been buried or never been conscious.
The shadow is merely somewhat inferior, primitive, unadapted, and
awkward; not wholly bad. It even contains childish or primitive
qualities which would in a way vitalize and embellish human existence,
but-convention forbids![Psychology and Religion," CW 11,
If it has been believed hitherto that the human shadow was the source
of all evil, it can now be ascertained on closer investigation that the
unconscious man, that is, his shadow, does not consist only of morally
reprehensible tendencies, but also displays a number of good qualities,
such as normal instincts, appropriate reactions, realistic insights,
creative impulses, etc.[Conclusion," CW 9ii, par.
An outbreak of neurosis constellates both sides of the shadow: those
qualities and activities one is not proud of, and new possibilities one
never knew were there.
Jung distinguished between the personal and
the collective or archetypal shadow.
With a little self-criticism one can see through the shadow-so far as
its nature is personal. But when it appears as an archetype, one
encounters the same difficulties as with anima and animus. In other
words, it is quite within the bounds of possibility for a man to
recognize the relative evil of his nature, but it is a rare and
shattering experience for him to gaze into the face of absolute
evil.["The Shadow," ibid., par. 19.]
Soul. A functional complex in the psyche. (See also Eros,
Logos and soul-image.)
While Jung often used the word soul
in its traditional theological sense, he strictly limited its
I have been compelled, in my investigations into the structure of the
unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between soul and
psyche. By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic
processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand,
I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be
described as a "personality." [Definitions," CW 6, par.
With this understanding, Jung outlined partial manifestations of the
soul in terms of anima/animus and persona. In his later writing on the
transference, informed by his study of the alchemical opus-which Jung
understood as psychologically analogous to the individuation process--he
was more specific.
The "soul" which accrues to ego-consciousness during the opus has a
feminine character in the man and a masculine character in a woman. His
anima wants to reconcile and unite; her animus tries to discern and
discriminate.[The Psychology of the Transference," CW 16,
Soul-image. The representation, in dreams or other products of
the unconscious, of the inner personality, usually contrasexual. (See also
anima and animus.)
Wherever an impassioned, almost magical, relationship exists between
the sexes, it is invariably a question of a projected soul-image. Since
these relationships are very common, the soul must be unconscious just
as frequently.[Definitions," CW 6, par. 809.
The soul-image is a specific archetypal image produced by the
unconscious, commonly experienced in projection onto a person of the
For an idealistic woman, a depraved man is often the bearer of the
soul-image; hence the "saviour-fantasy" so frequent in such cases. The
same thing happens with men, when the prostitute is surrounded with the
halo of a soul crying for succour.[ Ibid., par.
Where consciousness itself is identified with the soul, the soul-image
is more likely to be an aspect of the persona.
In that event, the persona, being unconscious, will be projected on a
person of the same sex, thus providing a foundation for many cases of
open or latent homosexuality, and of father-transferences in men or
mother-transferences in women. In such cases there is always a defective
adaptation to external reality and a lack of relatedness, because
identification with the soul produces an attitude predominantly oriented
to the perception of inner processes.[Ibid., par.
Many relationships begin and initially thrive on the basis of projected
soul-images. Inherently symbiotic, they often end badly.
Spirit. An archetype and a functional complex, often
personified and experienced as enlivening, analogous to what the
archaic mind felt to be an invisible, breathlike "presence."
Spirit, like God, denotes an object of psychic experience which
cannot be proved to exist in the external world and cannot be understood
rationally. This is its meaning if we use the word "spirit" in its best
sense.[Spirit and Life," CW 8, par. 626.]
The archetype of spirit in the shape of a man, hobgoblin, or animal
always appears in a situation where insight, understanding, good advice,
determination, planning, etc., are needed but cannot be mustered on
one's own resources. The archetype compensates this state of spiritual
deficiency by contents designed to fill the gap.["The
Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales," CW 9i, par.
Jung was careful to distinguish between spirit as a psychological
concept and its traditional use in religion.
From the psychological point of view, the phenomenon of spirit, like
every autonomous complex, appears as an intention of the unconscious
superior to, or at least on a par with, intentions of the ego. If we are
to do justice to the essence of the thing we call spirit, we should
really speak of a "higher" consciousness rather than of the unconscious.
["Spirit and Life," CW 8, par. 643.]
The common modern idea of spirit ill accords with the Christian view,
which regards it as the summum bonum, as God himself. To be sure,
there is also the idea of an evil spirit. But the modern idea cannot be
equated with that either, since for us spirit is not necessarily evil;
we would have to call it morally indifferent or neutral.[The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales," CW 9i, par.
Splitting. A term used to describe the dissociation of
the personality, marked by attitudes and behavior patterns determined by
complexes. (See also neurosis.)
Although this peculiarity is most clearly observable in
psychopathology, fundamentally it is a normal phenomenon, which can be
recognized with the greatest ease in the projections made by the
primitive psyche. The tendency to split means that parts of the psyche
detach themselves from consciousness to such an extent that they not
only appear foreign but lead an autonomous life of their own. It need
not be a question of hysterical multiple personality, or schizophrenic
alterations of personality, but merely of so-called "complexes" that
come entirely within the scope of the normal.
["Psychological Factors in Human Behaviour," CW 8, par.
Subjective level. The approach to dreams and other images where
the persons or situations pictured are seen as symbolic representations of
factors belonging entirely to the subject's own psyche. (Compare
Interpretation of an unconscious product on the subjective level
reveals the presence of subjective judgments and tendencies of which the
object is made the vehicle. When, therefore, an object-imago appears in
an unconscious product, it is not on that account the image of a real
object; it is far more likely that we are dealing with a subjective
functional complex. Interpretation on the subjective level allows us to
take a broader psychological view not only of dreams but also of
literary works, in which the individual figures then appear as
representatives of relatively autonomous functional complexes in the
psyche of the author.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
In the analytic process, the main task after the reductive
interpretation of images thrown up by the unconscious is to understand
what they say about oneself.
To establish a really mature attitude, he has to see the
subjective value of all these images which seem to create trouble
for him. He has to assimilate them into his own psychology; he has to
find out in what way they are part of himself; how he attributes for
instance a positive value to an object, when as a matter of fact
it is he who could and should develop this value. And in the same way,
when he projects negative qualities and therefore hates and loathes the
object, he has to discover that he is projecting his own inferior side,
his shadow, as it were, because he prefers to have an optimistic and
one-sided image of himself.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
Subjective psyche. See personal unconscious.
Subtle body. The somatic unconscious, a transcendental concept
involving the relationship between mind and body.
The part of the unconscious which is designated as the subtle body
becomes more and more identical with the functioning of the body, and
therefore it grows darker and darker and ends in the utter darkness of
matter. . . . Somewhere our unconscious becomes material, because the
body is the living unit, and our conscious and our unconscious are
embedded in it: they contact the body. Somewhere there is a place where
the two ends meet and become interlocked. And that is the [subtle body]
where one cannot say whether it is matter, or what one calls
"psyche."[ Nietzsche's Zarathustra, vol. 1, p.
Superior function. See primary function.
Supraordinate personality. An aspect of the psyche superior to,
and transcending, the ego. (See also self.)
The "supraordinate personality" is the total man, i.e., man as he
really is, not as he appears to himself. . . . I usually describe the
supraordinate personality as the "self," thus making a sharp distinction
between the ego, which, as is well known, extends only as far as the
conscious mind, and the whole of the personality, which includes
the unconscious as well as the conscious component. The ego is thus
related to the self as part to whole. To that extent the self is
supraordinate.[The Psychological Aspects of the Kore," CW
9i, pars. 314f.]
Symbiosis. A psychological state where contents of one's
personal unconscious are experienced in another person. (See also
projection and soul-image.)
Symbiosis manifests in
unconscious interpersonal bonds, easily established and difficult to
break. Jung gave an example in terms of introversion and extraversion.
Where one of these attitudes is dominant, the other, being unconscious, is
Either type has a predilection to marry its opposite, each being
unconsciously complementary to the other. . . . The one takes care of
reflection and the other sees to the initiative and practical action.
When the two types marry, they may effect an ideal union. So long as
they are fully occupied with their adaptation to the manifold external
needs of life they fit together admirably.["The Problem of
the Attitude-Type," CW 7, par. 80.]
Problems in such relationships typically surface only later in life,
accompanied by strong affect.
When the man has made enough money, or if a fine legacy should drop
from the skies and external necessity no longer presses, then they have
time to occupy themselves with one another. Hitherto they stood back to
back and defended themselves against necessity. But now they turn face
to face and look for understanding-only to discover that they have never
understood one another. Each speaks a different language. Then the
conflict between the two types begins. This struggle is envenomed,
brutal, full of mutual depreciation, even when conducted quietly and in
the greatest intimacy. For the value of the one is the negation of value
for the other.[Ibid.]
The ending of a symbiotic relationship often precipitates an outbreak
of neurosis, stimulated by an inner need to assimilate those aspects of
oneself that were projected onto the partner.
Symbol. The best possible expression for something unknown. (See
also constructive and final.)
Every psychological expression is a symbol if we assume that it
states or signifies something more and other than itself which eludes
our present knowledge.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
Jung distinguished between a symbol and a sign. Insignia on uniforms,
for instance, are not symbols but signs that identify the wearer. In
dealing with unconscious material (dreams, fantasies, etc.), the images
can be interpreted semiotically, as symptomatic signs pointing to known or
knowable facts, or symbolically, as expressing something essentially
The interpretation of the cross as a symbol of divine love is
semiotic, because "divine love" describes the fact to be expressed
better and more aptly than a cross, which can have many other meanings.
On the other hand, an interpretation of the cross is symbolic
when it puts the cross beyond all conceivable explanations, regarding it
as expressing an as yet unknown and incomprehensible fact of a mystical
or transcendent, i.e., psychological, nature, which simply finds itself
most appropriately represented in the cross.[ Ibid., par.
Whether something is interpreted as a symbol or a sign depends mainly
on the attitude of the observer. Jung linked the semiotic and symbolic
approaches, respectively, to the causal and final points of view. He
acknowledged the importance of both.
Psychic development cannot be accomplished by intention and will
alone; it needs the attraction of the symbol, whose value quantum
exceeds that of the cause. But the formation of a symbol cannot take
place until the mind has dwelt long enough on the elementary facts, that
is to say until the inner or outer necessities of the life-process have
brought about a transformation of energy.["On Psychic
Energy," CW 8, par. 47.]
The symbolic attitude is at bottom constructive, in that it gives
priority to understanding the meaning or purpose of psychological
phenomena, rather than seeking a reductive explanation.
There are, of course, neurotics who regard their unconscious
products, which are mostly morbid symptoms, as symbols of supreme
importance. Generally, however, this is not what happens. On the
contrary, the neurotic of today is only too prone to regard a product
that may actually be full of significance as a mere "symptom.[Definitions, CW 6, par. 821.]
Jung's primary interest in symbols lay in their ability to transform
and redirect instinctive energy.
How are we to explain religious processes, for instance, whose nature
is essentially symbolical? In abstract form, symbols are religious
ideas; in the form of action, they are rites or ceremonies. They are the
manifestation and expression of excess libido. At the same time they are
stepping-stones to new activities, which must be called cultural in
order to distinguish them from the instinctual functions that run their
regular course according to natural law.["On Psychic
Energy," CW 8, par. 91.]
The formation of symbols is going on all the time within the psyche,
appearing in fantasies and dreams. In analysis, after reductive
explanations have been exhausted, symbol-formation is reinforced by the
constructive approach. The aim is to make instinctive energy available for
meaningful work and a productive life.
Synchronicity. A phenomenon where an event in the outside world
coincides meaningfully with a psychological state of mind.
Synchronicity . . . consists of two factors: a) An unconscious image
comes into consciousness either directly (i.e., literally) or indirectly
(symbolized or suggested) in the form of a dream, idea, or premonition.
b) An objective situation coincides with this content. The one is as
puzzling as the other.["Synchronicity: An Acausal
Connecting Principle," ibid., par. 858.]
Jung associated synchronistic experiences with the relativity of space
and time and a degree of unconsciousness.
The very diverse and confusing aspects of these phenomena are, so far
as I can see at present, completely explicable on the assumption of a
psychically relative space-time continuum. As soon as a psychic content
crosses the threshold of consciousness, the synchronistic marginal
phenomena disappear, time and space resume their accustomed sway, and
consciousness is once more isolated in its subjectivity. . . .
Conversely, synchronistic phenomena can be evoked by putting the subject
into an unconscious state.[On the Nature of the Psyche,"
CW 8, par. 440.]
Synchronicity was defined by Jung as an "acausal connecting principle,"
an essentially mysterious connection between the personal psyche and the
material world, based on the fact that at bottom they are only different
forms of energy.
It is not only possible but fairly probable, even, that psyche and
matter are two different aspects of one and the same thing. The
synchronicity phenomena point, it seems to me, in this direction, for
they show that the nonpsychic can behave like the psychic, and vice
versa, without there being any causal connection between them.[Ibid., par. 418.]
Synthetic. See constructive.
Temenos. A Greek word meaning a sacred, protected space;
psychologically, descriptive of both a personal container and the sense of
privacy that surrounds an analytical relationship.
that the need to establish or preserve a temenos is often indicated by
drawings or dream images of a quaternary nature, such as mandalas.
The symbol of the mandala has exactly this meaning of a holy place, a
temenos, to protect the centre. And it is a symbol which is one
of the most important motifs in the objectivation of unconscious images.
It is a means of protecting the centre of the personality from being
drawn out and from being influenced from outside.["The
Tavistock Lectures," CW 18, par. 410.]
Tertium non datur. The reconciling "third," not logically
foreseeable, characteristic of a resolution in a conflict situation
when the tension between opposites has been held in consciousness.
(See also transcendent function.)
As a rule it occurs when the analysis has constellated the opposites
so powerfully that a union or synthesis of the personality becomes an
imperative necessity. . . . [This situation] requires a real solution
and necessitates a third thing in which the opposites can unite. Here
the logic of the intellect usually fails, for in a logical antithesis
there is no third. The "solvent" can only be of an irrational nature. In
nature the resolution of opposites is always an energic process: she
acts symbolically in the truest sense of the word, doing
something that expresses both sides, just as a waterfall visibly
mediates between above and below.[The Conjunction," CW 14,
Thinking. The mental process of interpreting what is perceived.
In Jung's model of typology, thinking is one of the four functions used
for psychological orientation. Along with feeling, it is a rational
function. If thinking is the primary function, then feeling is
automatically the inferior function.
Thinking, if it is to be real thinking and true to its own principle,
must rigorously exclude feeling. This, of course, does not do away with
the the fact that there are individuals whose thinking and feeling are
on the same level, both being of equal motive power for consciousness.
But in these cases there is also no question of a differentiated type,
but merely of relatively undeveloped thinking and feeling.["General Description of the Types," CW 6, par.
As a process of apperception, thinking may be active or passive.
Active thinking is an act of the will, passive thinking is a
mere occurrence. In the former case, I submit the contents of ideation
to a voluntary act of judgment; in the latter, conceptual connections
establish themselves of their own accord, and judgments are formed that
may even contradict my intention. . . . Active thinking, accordingly,
would correspond to my concept of directed thinking. Passive
thinking . . . I would call . . . intuitive thinking.["Definitions," ibid., par. 830.]
The capacity for directed thinking I call intellect; the
capacity for passive or undirected thinking I call intellectual
intuition.[Ibid., par. 832.]
Transcendent function. A psychic function that arises from the
tension between consciousness and the unconscious and supports their
union. (See also opposites and tertium non datur.)
When there is full parity of the opposites, attested by the ego's
absolute participation in both, this necessarily leads to a suspension
of the will, for the will can no longer operate when every motive has an
equally strong countermotive. Since life cannot tolerate a standstill, a
damming up of vital energy results, and this would lead to an
insupportable condition did not the tension of opposites produce a new,
uniting function that transcends them. This function arises quite
naturally from the regression of libido caused by the blockage.[Ibid., par. 824.]
The tendencies of the conscious and the unconscious are the two
factors that together make up the transcendent function. It is called
"transcendent" because it makes the transition from one attitude to
another organically possible.[The Transcendent Function,"
CW 8, par. 145.]
In a conflict situation, or a state of depression for which there is no
apparent reason, the development of the transcendent function depends on
becoming aware of unconscious material. This is most readily available in
dreams, but because they are so difficult to understand Jung considered
the method of active imagination-giving "form" to dreams, fantasies,
etc.--to be more useful.
Once the unconscious content has been given form and the meaning of
the formulation is understood, the question arises as to how the ego
will relate to this position, and how the ego and the unconscious are to
come to terms. This is the second and more important stage of the
procedure, the bringing together of opposites for the production of a
third: the transcendent function. At this stage it is no longer the
unconscious that takes the lead, but the ego.[Ibid., par.
This process requires an ego that can maintain its standpoint in face
of the counterposition of the unconscious. Both are of equal value. The
confrontation between the two generates a tension charged with energy and
creates a living, third essence.
From the activity of the unconscious there now emerges a new content,
constellated by thesis and antithesis in equal measure and standing in a
compensatory relation to both. It thus forms the middle ground on which
the opposites can be united. If, for instance, we conceive the
opposition to be sensuality versus spirituality, then the mediatory
content born out of the unconscious provides a welcome means of
expression for the spiritual thesis, because of its rich spiritual
associations, and also for the sensual antithesis, because of its
sensuous imagery. The ego, however, torn between thesis and antithesis,
finds in the middle ground its own counterpart, its sole and unique
means of expression, and it eagerly seizes on this in order to be
delivered from its division.["Definitions," CW 6, par.
The transcendent function is essentially an aspect of the
self-regulation of the psyche. It typically manifests symbolically and is
experienced as a new attitude toward oneself and life.
If the mediatory product remains intact, it forms the raw material
for a process not of dissolution but of construction, in which thesis
and antithesis both play their part. In this way it becomes a new
content that governs the whole attitude, putting an end to the division
and forcing the energy of the opposites into a common channel. The
standstill is overcome and life can flow on with renewed power towards
new goals.[Ibid., par. 827.]
Transference. A particular case of projection, used to
describe the unconscious, emotional bond that arises in the analysand
toward the analyst. (See also countertransference.)
Unconscious contents are invariably projected at first upon concrete
persons and situations. Many projections can ultimately be integrated
back into the individual once he has recognized their subjective origin;
others resist integration, and although they may be detached from their
original objects, they thereupon transfer themselves to the doctor.
Among these contents the relation to the parent of opposite sex plays an
important part, i.e., the relation of son to mother, daughter to father,
and also that of brother to sister.["The Psychology of the
Transference," CW 16, par. 357.]
Once the projections are recognized as such, the particular form of
rapport known as the transference is at an end, and the problem of
individual relationship begins.[The Therapeutic Value of
Abreaction," ibid., par. 287.]
A transference may be either positive or negative; the former is marked
by feelings of affection and respect, the latter by hostility and
For one type of person (called the infantile-rebel) a positive
transference is, to begin with, an important achievement with a healing
significance; for the other (the infantile-obedient) it is a dangerous
backsliding, a convenient way of evading life's duties. For the first a
negative transference denotes increased insubordination, hence a
backsliding and an evasion of life's duties, for the second it is a step
forward with a healing significance. ["Some Crucial Points
in Psychoanalysis," CW 4, par. 659.]
Jung did not regard the transference merely as a projection of
infantile-erotic fantasies. Though these may be present at the beginning
of analysis, they can be dissolved through the reductive method. Then the
purpose of the transference becomes the main issue and guide.
An exclusively sexual interpretation of dreams and fantasies is a
shocking violation of the patient's psychological material:
infantile-sexual fantasy is by no means the whole story, since the
material also contains a creative element, the purpose of which is to
shape a way out of the neurosis.["The Therapeutic Value of
Abreaction," CW 16, par. 277.]
Although Jung made contradictory statements about the therapeutic
importance of the transference--for instance:
The transference phenomenon is an inevitable feature of every
thorough analysis, for it is imperative that the doctor should get into
the closest possible touch with the patient's line of psychological
development.[Ibid., par. 283.]
We do not work with the "transference to the analyst," but against
it and in spite of it.["Some
Crucial Points in Psychoanalysis," CW 4, par. 601.]
A transference is always a hindrance; it is never an advantage.["The Tavistock Lectures," CW 18, par. 349.]
Medical treatment of the transference gives the patient a priceless
opportunity to withdraw his projections, to make good his losses, and to
integrate his personality.[The Psychology of the
Transference," CW 16, par. 420.]
--he did not doubt its significance when it was present.
The suitably trained analyst mediates the transcendent function for
the patient, i.e., helps him to bring conscious and unconscious together
and so arrive at a new attitude. . . . The patient clings by means of
the transference to the person who seems to promise him a renewal of
attitude; through it he seeks this change, which is vital to him, even
though he may not be conscious of doing so. For the patient, therefore,
the analyst has the character of an indispensable figure absolutely
necessary for life.["The Transcendent Function," CW 8,
Whatever is unconscious in the analysand and needed for healthy
functioning is projected onto the analyst. This includes archetypal images
of wholeness, with the result that the analyst takes on the stature of a
mana-personality. The analysand's task is then to understand such images
on the subjective level, a primary aim being to constellate the patient's
own inner analyst.
Empathy is an important purposive element in the
transference. By means of empathy the analysand attempts to emulate the
presumably healthier attitude of the analyst, and thereby to attain a
better level of adaptation.
The patient is bound to the analyst by ties of affection or
resistance and cannot help following and imitating his psychic attitude.
By this means he feels his way along (empathy). And with the best will
in the world and for all his technical skill the analyst cannot prevent
it, for empathy works surely and instinctively in spite of conscious
judgment, be it never so strong.["Some Crucial Points in
Psychoanalysis," CW 4, par. 661.]
Jung believed that analyzing the transference was extremely important
in order to return projected contents necessary for the individuation of
the analysand. But he pointed out that even after projections have been
withdrawn there remains a strong connection between the two parties. This
is because of an instinctive factor that has few outlets in modern
society: kinship libido.
Everyone is now a stranger among strangers. Kinship libido-which
could still engender a satisfying feeling of belonging together, as for
instance in the early Christian communities-has long been deprived of
its object. But, being an instinct, it is not to be satisfied by any
mere substitute such as a creed, party, nation, or state. It wants the
human connection. That is the core of the whole transference phenomenon,
and it is impossible to argue it away, because relationship to the self
is at once relationship to our fellow man, and no one can be related to
the latter until he is related to himself.["The Psychology
of the Transference," CW 16, par. 445.]
Transformation. See rebirth.
Trauma. An intense emotional shock, often accompanied by
re-pression and a splitting of the personality. (See
Treasure hard to attain. Broadly, a reference to aspects of
self-knowledge necessary for psychological individuality;
specifically, a metaphor for the goal of individuation, a good
working relationship with the self.
Trickster. Psychologically, descriptive of unconscious
shadow tendencies of an ambivalent, mercurial nature.
[The trickster] is a forerunner of the saviour . . . . He is both
subhuman and superhuman, a bestial and divine being, whose chief and
most alarming characteristic is his unconsciousness.["On
the Psychology of the Trickster-Figure," CW 9i, par. 472],
The so-called civilized man has forgotten the trickster. He remembers
him only figuratively and metaphorically, when, irritated by his own
ineptitude, he speaks of fate playing tricks on him or of things being
bewitched. He never suspects that his own hidden and apparently harmless
shadow has qualities whose dangerousness exceeds his wildest
dreams.[ Ibid., par. 478.]
Type. A characteristic general attitude or
[The] function-types, which one can call the thinking,
feeling, sensation, and intuitive types, may be divided into two classes
according to the quality of the basic function, i.e., into the rational
and the irrational. The thinking and feeling types belong to the former
class, the sensation and intuitive types to the latter. A further
division into two classes is permitted by the predominant trend of the
movement of libido, namely introversion and extraversion.["Definitions," CW 6, par. 835.]
Jung believed that the early distortion of type due to parental or
other environmental influences can lead to neurosis in later life.
As a rule, whenever such a falsification of type takes place . . .
the individual becomes neurotic later, and can be cured only by
developing the attitude consonant with his nature.["General Description of the Types," ibid., par.
Typology. A system in which individual attitudes and behavior
patterns are categorized in an attempt to explain the differences between
Jung's model of typology grew out of an extensive
historical review of the type question in literature, mythology,
aesthetics, philosophy and psychopathology. Whereas earlier
classifications were based on observations of temperamental or
physiological behavior patterns, Jung's model is concerned with the
movement of energy and the way in which one habitually or preferentially
orients oneself in the world.
First and foremost, it is a critical tool for the research worker,
who needs definite points of view and guidelines if he is to reduce the
chaotic profusion of individual experiences to any kind of order. . . .
Secondly, a typology is a great help in understanding the wide
variations that occur among individuals, and it also furnishes a clue to
the fundamental differences in the psychological theories now current.
Last but not least, it is an essential means for determining the
"personal equation" of the practising psychologist, who, armed with an
exact knowledge of his differentiated and inferior functions, can avoid
many serious blunders in dealing with his patients.["Psychological Typology," ibid., par.
Jung differentiated eight typological groups: two personality
attitudes-introversion and extraversion-and four functions-thinking,
sensation, intuition and feeling, each of which may operate in an
introverted or extraverted way.
Introversion and extraversion are
psychological modes of adaptation. In the former, the movement of energy
is toward the inner world. In the latter, interest is directed toward the
outer world. In one case the subject (inner reality) and in the other the
object (things and other people, outer reality) is of primary
[Introversion] is normally characterized by a hesitant, reflective,
retiring nature that keeps itself to itself, shrinks from objects, is
always slightly on the defensive and prefers to hide behind mistrustful
scru-tiny. [Extraversion] is normally characterized by an outgoing,
candid, and accommodating nature that adapts easily to a given
situation, quickly forms attachments, and, setting aside any possible
misgivings, will often venture forth with careless confidence into
unknown situations. In the first case obviously the subject, and in the
second the object, is all-important.["The Problem of the
Attitude-Type," CW 7, par. 62. ]
The crucial factor in determining whether one is introverted or
extraverted, as opposed to which attitude is currently operative, is not
what one does but rather the motivation for doing it-the direction in
which one's energy naturally, and usually, flows.
Whether a person
is predominantly introverted or extraverted only becomes apparent in
association with one of the four functions, each with its special area of
expertise: thinking refers to the process of cognitive thought, sensation
is perception by means of the physical sense organs, feeling is the
function of subjective judgment or valuation, and intuition refers to
perception via the unconscious.
Briefly, the sensation function
establishes that something exists, thinking tells us what it means,
feeling tells us what it's worth, and through intuition we have a sense of
In this way we can orient ourselves with respect to the immediate
world as completely as when we locate a place geographically by latitude
and longitude. The four functions are somewhat like the four points of
the compass; they are just as arbitrary and just as indispen-sable.
Nothing prevents our shifting the cardinal points as many degrees as we
like in one direction or the other, or giving them differ-ent names. It
is merely a question of convention and intelligibility.
But one thing
I must confess: I would not for anything dispense with this compass on
my psychological voyages of discovery.["A Psychological
Theory of Types," CW 6, pars. 958f.]ß
Jung's basic model, including the relationship between the four
functions, is a quaternity, as shown in the diagram. (Thinking is here
arbitrarily placed at the top; any of the other functions might be placed
there, according to which one a person most favors.)
Jung believed that any one function by itself is not sufficient for
ordering our experience of ourselves or the world around us; all four are
required for a comprehensive understanding.
For complete orientation all four functions should contribute
equally: thinking should facilitate cognition and judgment, feeling
should tell us how and to what extent a thing is important or
unimportant for us, sensation should convey concrete reality to us
through seeing, hearing, tasting, etc., and intuition should enable us
to divine the hidden possibilities in the background, since these too
belong to the complete picture of a given situation.[Psychological Types," ibid., par. 900.] Jung
acknowledged that the four orienting functions do not contain everything
in the conscious psyche. Will power and memory, for instance, are not
included, because although they may be affected by the way one functions
typologically, they are not in themselves typological
The ideal is to have conscious access to the function or functions
appropriate for particular circumstances, but in practice the four
functions are not equally at the disposal of consciousness. One is
invariably more differentiated, called the superior or primary function.
The function opposite to the primary function is called the fourth or
The terms "superior" and "inferior" in this
context do not imply value judgments. No function is any better than any
of the others. The superior function is simply the most developed, the one
a person is most likely to use; similarly, inferior does not mean
pathological but merely less used compared to the favored function.
Moreover, the constant influx of unconscious contents into consciousness
is such that it is often difficult for oneself, let alone an outside
observer, to tell which functions belong to the conscious personality and
which to the unconscious.
Generally speaking, a judging observer [thinking or feeling type]
will tend to seize on the conscious character, while a perceptive
observer [sensation type or intuitive] will be more influenced by the
unconscious character, since judgment is chiefly concerned with the
conscious motivation of the psychic process, while perception registers
the process itself.["General Description of the Types,"
ibid., par. 576.]
What happens to those functions that are not consciously brought into
daily use and therefore not developed?
They remain in a more or less primitive and infantile state, often
only half conscious, or even quite unconscious. The relatively
undeveloped functions constitute a specific inferiority which is
characteristic of each type and is an integral part of his total
character. The one-sided emphasis on thinking is always accompanied by
an inferiority of feeling, and differentiated sensation is injurious to
intuition and vice versa.[A Psychological Theory of
Types," ibid., par. 955.]
Jung described two of the four functions as rational (or judging) and
two as irrational (or perceiving).
Thinking, as a function of logical
discrimination, is rational. So is feeling, which as a way of evaluating
our likes and dislikes can be quite as discriminating as thinking. Both
are based on a reflective, linear process that coalesces into a particular
judgment. Sensation and intuition are called irrational functions because
they do not depend on logic. Each is a way of perceiving simply what is:
sensation sees what is in the external world, intuition sees (or "picks
up") what is in the inner world.
Besides the primary function,
there is often a second, and sometimes a third, auxiliary function that
exerts a co-determining influence on consciousness. This is always one
whose nature, rational or irrational, is different from the primary
Jung's model of typology is the basis for modern type tests, such as
the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Singer-Loomis Personality
Profile, used in organizational settings.
Unconscious. The totality of all psychic phenomena that lack the
quality of consciousness. (See also collective unconscious and
The unconscious . . . is the source of the instinctual forces of the
psyche and of the forms or categories that regulate them, namely the
archetypes.[The Structure of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
The concept of the unconscious is for me an exclusively
psychological concept, and not a philosophical concept of a
metaphysical nature. In my view the unconscious is a psychological
borderline concept, which covers all psychic contents or processes that
are not conscious, i.e., not related to the ego in any perceptible way.
My justification for speaking of the existence of unconscious processes
at all is derived simply and solely from experience.[Definitions," CW 6, par. 837.]
The unconscious is both vast and inexhaustible. It is not simply the
unknown or the repository of conscious thoughts and emotions that have
been repressed, but includes contents that may or will become
So defined, the unconscious depicts an extremely fluid state of
affairs: everything of which I know, but of which I am not at the moment
thinking; everything of which I was once conscious but have now
forgotten; everything perceived by my senses, but not noted by my
conscious mind; everything which, involuntarily and without paying
attention to it, I feel, think, remember, want, and do; all the future
things that are taking shape in me and will sometime come to
consciousness: all this is the content of the unconscious.[On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
The unconscious also contains "psychoid" functions that are not capable
of consciousness and of which we have only indirect knowledge, such as the
relationship between matter and spirit.
Whenever the unconscious
becomes overactive, it comes to light in symptoms that paralyze conscious
action. This is likely to happen when unconscious factors are ignored or
The demands of the unconscious then force themselves imperiously on
consciousness and bring about a disastrous split which shows itself in
one of two ways: either the subject no longer knows what he really wants
and nothing interests him, or he wants too much at once and has too many
interests, but in impossible things.[General Description
of the Types," CW 6, par. 573.
In general, the compensating attitude of the unconscious works to
maintain psychic equilibrium.
The unconscious processes that compensate the conscious ego contain
all those elements that are necessary for the self-regulation of the
psyche as a whole. On the personal level, these are the not consciously
recognized personal motives which appear in dreams, or the meanings of
daily situations which we have overlooked, or conclusions we have failed
to draw, or affects we have not permitted, or criticisms we have spared
ourselves.[The Function of the Unconscious," CW 7, par.
In terms of typology, the unconscious manifests through the opposite
attitude and the less developed functions. In the extravert, the
unconscious has a subjective coloring and an egocentric bias; in the
introvert, it can appear as a compulsive tie to persons and things in the
Jung attributed to the unconscious a creative
function, in that it presents to consciousness contents necessary for
psychological health. It is not, however, superior to consciousness; its
messages (in dreams, impulses, etc.) must always be mediated by the
The unconscious is useless without the human mind. It always seeks
its collective purposes and never your individual destiny. [C.G. Jung Letters, vol. 1, p. 283.]
Consciousness should defend its reason and protect itself, and the
chaotic life of the unconscious should be given the chance of having its
way too--as much of it as we can stand. This means open conflict and
open collaboration at once. That, evidently, is the way human life
should be. It is the old game of hammer and anvil: between them the
patient iron is forged into an indestructible whole, an
"individual."[Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation,"
CW 9i, par. 522.]
Unconsciousness. A state of psychic functioning marked by lack
of control over the instincts and identification with
Unconsciousness is the primal sin, evil itself, for the Logos.["Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype," ibid., par.
An extreme state of unconsciousness is characterized by the
predominance of compulsive instinctual processes, the result of which is
either uncontrolled inhibition or a lack of inhibition throughout. The
happenings within the psyche are then contradictory and proceed in terms
of alternating, non-logical antitheses. In such a case the level of
consciousness is essentially that of a dream-state. A high degree of
consciousness, on the other hand, is characterized by a heightened
awareness, a preponderance of will, directed, rational behaviour, and an
almost total absence of instinctual determinants. The unconscious is
then found to be at a definitely animal level. The first state is
lacking in intellectual and ethical achievement, the second lacks
naturalness.["Psychological Factors in Human Behaviour,"
CW 8, par. 249.]
The greatest danger about unconsciousness is proneness to suggestion.
The effect of suggestion is due to the release of an unconscious
dynamic, and the more unconscious this is, the more effective it will
be. Hence the ever-widening split between conscious and unconscious
increases the danger of psychic infection and mass psychosis.[The Structure and Dynamics of the Self," CW 9ii, par.
Union of opposites. See opposites.
Unus mundus. See coniunctio.
Wholeness. A state in which consciousness and the unconscious
work together in harmony. (See also self.)
Although "wholeness" seems at first sight to be nothing but an
abstract idea (like anima and animus), it is nevertheless empirical in
so far as it is anticipated by the psyche in the form of spontaneous or
autonomous symbols. These are the quaternity or mandala symbols, which
occur not only in the dreams of modern people who have never heard of
them, but are widely disseminated in the historical records of many
peoples and many epochs. Their significance as symbols of unity and
totality is amply confirmed by history as well as by empirical
psychology.[The Self," ibid., par.
In terms of individuation, where the goal is a vital connection with
the self, Jung contrasted wholeness with the conflicting desire to become
The realization of the self, which would logically follow from a
recognition of its supremacy, leads to a fundamental conflict, to a real
suspension between opposites (reminiscent of the crucified Christ
hanging between two thieves), and to an approximate state of wholeness
that lacks perfection. . . . The individual may strive after perfection
. . . but must suffer from the opposite of his intentions for the sake
of his completeness.["Christ, A Symbol of the Self,"
ibid., par. 123.]
Will. The amount of psychic energy or libido at the disposal of
consciousness, implying some control over instinct.
The will is a psychological phenomenon that owes its existence to
culture and moral education, but is largely lacking in the primitive
mentality.[Definitions," CW 6, par.
Wise old man. An archetypal image of meaning and wisdom. In
Jung's terminology, the wise old man is a personification of the masculine
spirit. In a man's psychology, the anima is related to the wise old man as
daughter to father. In a woman, the wise old man is an aspect of the
animus. The feminine equivalent in both men and women is the Great
The figure of the wise old man can appear so plastically, not only in
dreams but also in visionary meditation (or what we call "active
imagination"), that . . . it takes over the role of a guru. The wise old
man appears in dreams in the guise of a magician, doctor, priest,
teacher, professor, grandfather, or any person possessing
authority.["The Phenomenology of the Spirit in
Fairytales," CW 9i, par. 398.]
Word Association Experiment. A test devised by Jung to show the
reality and autonomy of unconscious complexes.
Our conscious intentions and actions are often frustrated by
unconscious processes whose very existence is a continual surprise to
us. We make slips of the tongue and slips in writing and unconsciously
do things that betray our most closely guarded secrets-which are
sometimes unknown even to ourselves. . . . These phenomena can . . . be
demonstrated experimentally by the association tests, which are very
useful for finding out things that people cannot or will not speak
about.[The Structure of the Psyche," CW 8, par.
The Word Association Experiment consists of a list of one hundred
words, to which one is asked to give an immediate association. The person
conducting the experiment measures the delay in response with a stop
watch. This is repeated a second time, noting any different responses.
Finally the subject is asked for comments on those words to which there
were a longer-than-average response time, a merely mechanical response, or
a different association on the second run-through; all these are marked by
the questioner as "complex indicators" and then discussed with the
The result is a "map" of the personal complexes, valuable both
for self-understanding and in recognizing disruptive factors that commonly
What happens in the association test also happens in every discussion
between two people. . . . The discussion loses its objective character
and its real purpose, since the constellated complexes frustrate the
intentions of the speakers and may even put answers into their mouths
which they can no longer remember afterwards.[A Review of
the Complex Theory," ibid., par. 199.]
Wounded Healer. An archetypal dynamic that may be constellated
in an analytic relationship.
This term derives from the legend of
Asclepius, a Greek doctor who in recognition of his own wounds established
a sanctuary at Epidaurus where others could be healed of theirs.
seeking to be cured went through a process called incubation. First they
had a cleansing bath, thought to have a purifying effect on the soul as
well as the body. Uncontaminated by the body, the soul was free to commune
with the gods. After preliminary sacrificial offerings, the incubants lay
on a couch and went to sleep. If they were lucky, they had a healing
dream; if they were luckier, a snake came in the night and bit
The wounded healer archetype can be schematized by a
variation of the diagram used by Jung to illustrate the lines of
communication in a relationship.[See "The Psychology of the
Transference," The Practice of Psychother-apy, CW 16, par. 422.
The drawing shows six double-headed arrows, indicating that
communication can move in either direction-twelve ways in which
information can pass between analyst and analysand.
According to this
paradigm, the analyst's wounds, although presumed to be relatively
conscious after a lengthy personal analysis, live a shadowy existence.
They can always be reconstellated in particular situations, and especially
when working with someone whose wounds are similar. (They are the basis
for countertransference reactions in analysis.)
wounded analysand's inner healer is in the shadow but potentially
available. The analysand's wounds activate those of the analyst. The
analyst reacts, identifies what is happening and in one way or another,
consciously or unconsciously, passes this awareness back to the
In this model, the unconscious relationship between analyst
and analysand is quite as important, in terms of the healing process, as
what is consciously communicated. There are two other significant
1) Healing can take place only if the analyst has an
ongoing relationship with the unconscious. Otherwise, he or she may
identify with the healer archetype, a common form of inflation.
Depth psychology is a dangerous profession, since the analyst is forever
prone to being infected by the other's wounds-or having his or her wounds
No analysis is capable of banishing all unconsciousness for ever. The
analyst must go on learning endlessly, and never forget that each new
case brings new problems to light and thus gives rise to unconscious
assumptions that have never before been constellated. We could say,
without too much exaggeration, that a good half of every treatment that
probes at all deeply consists in the doctor's examining himself, for
only what he can put right in himself can he hope to put right in the
patient. It is no loss, either, if he feels that the patient is hitting
him, or even scoring off him: it is his own hurt that gives the measure
of his power to heal. This, and nothing else, is the meaning of the
Greek myth of the wounded physician. ["Fundamental
Questions of Psychotherapy," ibid. para. 239.]
The Collected Works of C.G. Jung. 20 vols. Bollingen Series XX,
translated by R.F.C. Hull, edited
by H. Read, M. Fordham, G. Adler,
and Wm. McGuire. Princeton University Press,
The names of the individual volumes are as follows:
1. Psychiatric Studies
2. Experimental Researches
Psychogenesis of Mental Disease
4. Freud and Psychoanalysis
Symbols of Transformation
6. Psychological Types
7. Two Essays on
8. The Structure and Dynamics of the
9i. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self
10. Civilization in
11. Psychology and Religion: West and East
13. Alchemical Studies
15. The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature
Practice of Psychotherapy
17. The Development of Personality
Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings
19. General Bibliography of
20. General Index
C.G. Jung Letters. Bollingen Series XCV. 2 vols. Ed. Gerhard
Adler and Aniela
Jaffé.Trans.R.F.C.Hull. Princeton University Press,
Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Ed. Aniela Jaffé. Pantheon Books,
New York, 1961.
The Freud/Jung Letters. Bollingen Series XCIV. Ed. William
McGuire. Trans. Ralph Manheim and
R.F.C. Hull. Princeton University
Press, Princeton, 1974.
Nietzsche's Zarathustra: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1934-1939.
Bollingen Series XCIX. 2 vols.
Ed. James L. Jarrett. Princeton
Univer-sity Press, 1988.
[Introduction to C.G.
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