Mock v0.7.2 documentation

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TODO and Limitations

Contributions, bug reports and comments welcomed!

Feature requests and bug reports are handled on the issue tracker:

When mocking a class with patch, passing in spec=True, the mock class has an instance created from the same spec. Should this be the default behaviour for mocks anyway (mock return values inheriting the spec from their parent), or should it be controlled by an additional keyword argument (inherit) to the Mock constructor?

Interaction of magic methods with spec, wraps. For example, should spec cause all methods to be wrapped with mocksignature perhaps? (or another keyword argument perhaps?)

Should magic method calls (including __call__?) be tracked in method_calls?

Could take a patch keyword argument and auto-do the patching in the constructor and unpatch in the destructor. This would be useful in itself, but violates TOOWTDI and would be unsafe for IronPython (non-deterministic calling of destructors). Destructors aren’t called anyway where there are cycles, but a weak reference with a callback can be used to get round this.

Mock has several attributes. This makes it unsuitable for mocking objects that use these attribute names. A way round this would be to provide start and stop (or similar) methods that hide these attributes when needed. (_name is a mock attribute that will be not-uncommon, but it is accessed externally on mocks when building method_calls names and so can’t be changed to a double underscore name.)

If a patch is started using patch.start and then not stopped correctly, due to a bug in the test code, then the unpatching is not done. Using weak references it would be possible to detect and fix this when the patch object itself is garbage collected. This is tricky to get right though.

CHANGELOG

2011/05/30 Version 0.7.2

  • BUGFIX: instances of list subclasses can now be used as mock specs
  • BUGFIX: MagicMock equality / inequality protocol methods changed to use the default equality / inequality. This is done through a side_effect on the mocks used for __eq__ / __ne__

2011/05/06 Version 0.7.1

Package fixes contributed by Michael Fladischer. No code changes.

  • Include template in package
  • Use isolated binaries for the tox tests
  • Unset executable bit on docs
  • Fix DOS line endings in getting-started.txt

2011/03/05 Version 0.7.0

No API changes since 0.7.0 rc1. Many documentation changes including a stylish new Sphinx theme.

The full set of changes since 0.6.0 are:

  • Python 3 compatibility
  • Ability to mock magic methods with Mock and addition of MagicMock with pre-created magic methods
  • Addition of mocksignature and mocksignature argument to patch and patch.object
  • Addition of patch.dict for changing dictionaries during a test
  • Ability to use patch, patch.object and patch.dict as class decorators
  • Renamed patch_object to patch.object (patch_object is deprecated)
  • Addition of soft comparisons: call_args, call_args_list and method_calls now return tuple-like objects which compare equal even when empty args or kwargs are skipped
  • patchers (patch, patch.object and patch.dict) have start and stop methods
  • Addition of assert_called_once_with method
  • Mocks can now be named (name argument to constructor) and the name is used in the repr
  • repr of a mock with a spec includes the class name of the spec
  • assert_called_with works with python -OO
  • New spec_set keyword argument to Mock and patch. If used, attempting to set an attribute on a mock not on the spec will raise an AttributeError
  • Mocks created with a spec can now pass isinstance tests (__class__ returns the type of the spec)
  • Added docstrings to all objects
  • Improved failure message for Mock.assert_called_with when the mock has not been called at all
  • Decorated functions / methods have their docstring and __module__ preserved on Python 2.4.
  • BUGFIX: mock.patch now works correctly with certain types of objects that proxy attribute access, like the django settings object
  • BUGFIX: mocks are now copyable (thanks to Ned Batchelder for reporting and diagnosing this)
  • BUGFIX: spec=True works with old style classes
  • BUGFIX: help(mock) works now (on the module). Can no longer use __bases__ as a valid sentinel name (thanks to Stephen Emslie for reporting and diagnosing this)
  • BUGFIX: side_effect now works with BaseException exceptions like KeyboardInterrupt
  • BUGFIX: reset_mock caused infinite recursion when a mock is set as its own return value
  • BUGFIX: patching the same object twice now restores the patches correctly
  • with statement tests now skipped on Python 2.4
  • Tests require unittest2 (or unittest2-py3k) to run
  • Tested with tox on Python 2.4 - 3.2, jython and pypy (excluding 3.0)
  • Added ‘build_sphinx’ command to setup.py (requires setuptools or distribute) Thanks to Florian Bauer
  • Switched from subversion to mercurial for source code control
  • Konrad Delong added as co-maintainer

2011/02/16 Version 0.7.0 RC 1

Changes since beta 4:

  • Tested with jython, pypy and Python 3.2 and 3.1
  • Decorated functions / methods have their docstring and __module__ preserved on Python 2.4
  • BUGFIX: mock.patch now works correctly with certain types of objects that proxy attribute access, like the django settings object
  • BUGFIX: reset_mock caused infinite recursion when a mock is set as its own return value

2010/11/12 Version 0.7.0 beta 4

  • patchers (patch, patch.object and patch.dict) have start and stop methods
  • Addition of assert_called_once_with method
  • repr of a mock with a spec includes the class name of the spec
  • assert_called_with works with python -OO
  • New spec_set keyword argument to Mock and patch. If used, attempting to set an attribute on a mock not on the spec will raise an AttributeError
  • Attributes and return value of a MagicMock are MagicMock objects
  • Attempting to set an unsupported magic method now raises an AttributeError
  • patch.dict works as a class decorator
  • Switched from subversion to mercurial for source code control
  • BUGFIX: mocks are now copyable (thanks to Ned Batchelder for reporting and diagnosing this)
  • BUGFIX: spec=True works with old style classes
  • BUGFIX: mocksignature=True can now patch instance methods via patch.object

2010/09/18 Version 0.7.0 beta 3

  • Using spec with MagicMock only pre-creates magic methods in the spec
  • Setting a magic method on a mock with a spec can only be done if the spec has that method
  • Mocks can now be named (name argument to constructor) and the name is used in the repr
  • mocksignature can now be used with classes (signature based on __init__) and callable objects (signature based on __call__)
  • Mocks created with a spec can now pass isinstance tests (__class__ returns the type of the spec)
  • Default numeric value for MagicMock is 1 rather than zero (because the MagicMock bool defaults to True and 0 is False)
  • Improved failure message for Mock.assert_called_with() when the mock has not been called at all
  • Adding the following to the set of supported magic methods:
    • __getformat__ and __setformat__
    • pickle methods
    • __trunc__, __ceil__ and __floor__
    • __sizeof__
  • Added ‘build_sphinx’ command to setup.py (requires setuptools or distribute) Thanks to Florian Bauer
  • with statement tests now skipped on Python 2.4
  • Tests require unittest2 to run on Python 2.7
  • Improved several docstrings and documentation

2010/06/23 Version 0.7.0 beta 2

  • patch.dict() works as a context manager as well as a decorator
  • patch.dict takes a string to specify dictionary as well as a dictionary object. If a string is supplied the name specified is imported
  • BUGFIX: patch.dict restores dictionary even when an exception is raised

2010/06/22 Version 0.7.0 beta 1

  • Addition of mocksignature()
  • Ability to mock magic methods
  • Ability to use patch and patch.object as class decorators
  • Renamed patch_object to patch.object() (patch_object is deprecated)
  • Addition of MagicMock class with all magic methods pre-created for you
  • Python 3 compatibility (tested with 3.2 but should work with 3.0 & 3.1 as well)
  • Addition of patch.dict() for changing dictionaries during a test
  • Addition of mocksignature argument to patch and patch.object
  • help(mock) works now (on the module). Can no longer use __bases__ as a valid sentinel name (thanks to Stephen Emslie for reporting and diagnosing this)
  • Addition of soft comparisons: call_args, call_args_list and method_calls now return tuple-like objects which compare equal even when empty args or kwargs are skipped
  • Added docstrings.
  • BUGFIX: side_effect now works with BaseException exceptions like KeyboardInterrupt
  • BUGFIX: patching the same object twice now restores the patches correctly
  • The tests now require unittest2 to run
  • Konrad Delong added as co-maintainer

2009/08/22 Version 0.6.0

  • New test layout compatible with test discovery
  • Descriptors (static methods / class methods etc) can now be patched and restored correctly
  • Mocks can raise exceptions when called by setting side_effect to an exception class or instance
  • Mocks that wrap objects will not pass on calls to the underlying object if an explicit return_value is set

2009/04/17 Version 0.5.0

  • Made DEFAULT part of the public api.
  • Documentation built with Sphinx.
  • side_effect is now called with the same arguments as the mock is called with and if returns a non-DEFAULT value that is automatically set as the mock.return_value.
  • wraps keyword argument used for wrapping objects (and passing calls through to the wrapped object).
  • Mock.reset renamed to Mock.reset_mock, as reset is a common API name.
  • patch / patch_object are now context managers and can be used with with.
  • A new ‘create’ keyword argument to patch and patch_object that allows them to patch (and unpatch) attributes that don’t exist. (Potentially unsafe to use - it can allow you to have tests that pass when they are testing an API that doesn’t exist - use at your own risk!)
  • The methods keyword argument to Mock has been removed and merged with spec. The spec argument can now be a list of methods or an object to take the spec from.
  • Nested patches may now be applied in a different order (created mocks passed in the opposite order). This is actually a bugfix.
  • patch and patch_object now take a spec keyword argument. If spec is passed in as ‘True’ then the Mock created will take the object it is replacing as its spec object. If the object being replaced is a class, then the return value for the mock will also use the class as a spec.
  • A Mock created without a spec will not attempt to mock any magic methods / attributes (they will raise an AttributeError instead).

2008/10/12 Version 0.4.0

  • Default return value is now a new mock rather than None

  • return_value added as a keyword argument to the constructor

  • New method ‘assert_called_with’

  • Added ‘side_effect’ attribute / keyword argument called when mock is called

  • patch decorator split into two decorators:

    • patch_object which takes an object and an attribute name to patch (plus optionally a value to patch with which defaults to a mock object)
    • patch which takes a string specifying a target to patch; in the form ‘package.module.Class.attribute’. (plus optionally a value to patch with which defaults to a mock object)
  • Can now patch objects with None

  • Change to patch for nose compatibility with error reporting in wrapped functions

  • Reset no longer clears children / return value etc - it just resets call count and call args. It also calls reset on all children (and the return value if it is a mock).

Thanks to Konrad Delong, Kevin Dangoor and others for patches and suggestions.

2007/12/03 Version 0.3.1

patch maintains the name of decorated functions for compatibility with nose test autodiscovery.

Tests decorated with patch that use the two argument form (implicit mock creation) will receive the mock(s) passed in as extra arguments.

Thanks to Kevin Dangoor for these changes.

2007/11/30 Version 0.3.0

Removed patch_module. patch can now take a string as the first argument for patching modules.

The third argument to patch is optional - a mock will be created by default if it is not passed in.

2007/11/21 Version 0.2.1

Bug fix, allows reuse of functions decorated with patch and patch_module.

2007/11/20 Version 0.2.0

Added spec keyword argument for creating Mock objects from a specification object.

Added patch and patch_module monkey patching decorators.

Added sentinel for convenient access to unique objects.

Distribution includes unit tests.

2007/11/19 Version 0.1.0

Initial release.