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Simple mocking of open as a context manager

emoticon:globepage Using open as a context manager is a great way to ensure your file handles are closed properly and is becoming common:

with open('/some/path', 'w') as f:

The issue is that even if you mock out the call to open it is the returned object that is used as a context manager (and has __enter__ and __exit__ called).

Using MagicMock from the mock library, we can mock out context managers very simply. However, mocking open is fiddly enough that a helper function is useful. Here mock_open creates and configures a MagicMock that behaves as a file context manager.

from mock import inPy3k, MagicMock

if inPy3k:
    file_spec = ['_CHUNK_SIZE', '__enter__', '__eq__', '__exit__',
        '__format__', '__ge__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__iter__', '__le__',
        '__lt__', '__ne__', '__next__', '__repr__', '__str__',
        '_checkClosed', '_checkReadable', '_checkSeekable',
        '_checkWritable', 'buffer', 'close', 'closed', 'detach',
        'encoding', 'errors', 'fileno', 'flush', 'isatty',
        'line_buffering', 'mode', 'name',
        'newlines', 'peek', 'raw', 'read', 'read1', 'readable',
        'readinto', 'readline', 'readlines', 'seek', 'seekable', 'tell',
        'truncate', 'writable', 'write', 'writelines']
    file_spec = file

def mock_open(mock=None, data=None):
    if mock is None:
        mock = MagicMock(spec=file_spec)

    handle = MagicMock(spec=file_spec)
    handle.write.return_value = None
    if data is None:
        handle.__enter__.return_value = handle
        handle.__enter__.return_value = data
    mock.return_value = handle
    return mock
>>> m = mock_open()
>>> with patch('', m, create=True):
...     with open('foo', 'w') as h:
...         h.write('some stuff')
>>> m.assert_called_once_with('foo', 'w')
>>> m.mock_calls
[call('foo', 'w'),
 call().write('some stuff'),
 call().__exit__(None, None, None)]
>>> handle = m()
>>> handle.write.assert_called_once_with('some stuff')

And for reading files, using a StringIO to represent the file handle:

>>> from StringIO import StringIO
>>> m = mock_open(data=StringIO('foo bar baz'))
>>> with patch('', m, create=True):
...     with open('foo') as h:
...         result =
>>> m.assert_called_once_with('foo')
>>> assert result == 'foo bar baz'

Note that the StringIO will only be used for the data if open is used as a context manager. If you just configure and use mocks they will work whichever way open is used.

This helper function will be built into mock 0.9.

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Posted by Fuzzyman on 2012-01-13 12:18:35 | |

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Mocks with some attributes not present

emoticon:file1 Mock objects, from the mock library, create attributes on demand. This allows them to pretend to be objects of any type.

What mock isn't so good at is pretending not to have attributes. You may want a mock object to return False to a hasattr call, or raise an AttributeError when an attribute is fetched. You can do this by providing an object as a spec for a mock, but that isn't always convenient.

Below is a subclass of Mock that allows you to "block" attributes by deleting them. Once deleted, accessing an attribute will raise an AttributeError.

from mock import Mock

deleted = object()
missing = object()

class DeletingMock(Mock):
    def __delattr__(self, attr):
        if attr in self.__dict__:
            return super(DeletingMock, self).__delattr__(attr)
        obj = self._mock_children.get(attr, missing)
        if obj is deleted:
            raise AttributeError(attr)
        if obj is not missing:
            del self._mock_children[attr]
        self._mock_children[attr] = deleted

    def __getattr__(self, attr):
        result = super(DeletingMock, self).__getattr__(attr)
        if result is deleted:
            raise AttributeError(attr)
        return result
>>> mock = DeletingMock()
>>> hasattr(mock, 'm')
>>> del mock.m
>>> hasattr(mock, 'm')
>>> del mock.f
>>> mock.f
Traceback (most recent call last):
AttributeError: f

This functionality will probably be built into 0.9, or whichever version of mock comes after 0.8...

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Posted by Fuzzyman on 2012-01-12 12:33:15 | |

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mock 0.8rc2: new release and development docs

emoticon:tooth I've pushed out a new release of mock. This fixes an inconsistency in the create_autospec api I discovered whilst working on the docs (yes I've really been working on the docs), and a fix for a bug with using ANY. (Thanks to Tom Davis for reporting this.)

You can download mock 0.8rc2 or install it with:

pip install -U mock==dev

mock is a library for testing in Python. It allows you to replace parts of your system under test with mock objects. The latest stable release is 0.7.2, which you can download from pypi.

There are two changes in 0.8rc2:

  • Removed the configure keyword argument to create_autospec and allow arbitrary keyword arguments (for the Mock constructor) instead
  • Fixed ANY equality with some types in assert_called_with calls

Unfortunately, if you were using the configure argument to create_autospec then you'll have to change code when you update to 0.8rc2, sorry. The good news is that there's now some documentation for the new features - including for create_autospec.

I've now switched mock to using one of the standard Sphinx themes, and the development documentation (updated automatically on every commit) is available at

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Posted by Fuzzyman on 2012-01-11 02:13:32 | |

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